# variations between voltage output and the current output

## Variations between voltage output and the current output

Variations between voltage output and the current output: Measuring voltage and current from a source of energy is important especially in instrumentation and electronic engineering. Also, ensuring optimal power supply to a system results in high efficiency and minimizes harm. The amount of voltage and current produced by a source of energy may vary depending on various factors. The voltage across an output wire in a solar system results from the light energy trapped by the solar cells. The voltage produced in such a system depends on the intensity of the light and the number of currents drawn from the system. Therefore, when the light intensity is maintained at a high value, the voltage of the solar system will be high provided no current is withdrawn.

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Furthermore, exploring the efficiency of a given source of energy is also important and this calls for the understanding of the possible factors influencing the power distribution efficiency. The solar cells are used in powering devices and when the cell is connected to a load, the voltage drops gradually as the current drawn increases. Furthermore, as the load resistance increases, the current through the system increases. The amount of current flowing through an electric conductor is inversely proportional to the load resistance. On the other hand, the voltage recorded in a system is directly proportional to the resistance due to the reduction in the amount of current drawn from the system.

The purpose of the experiment was to explore the variations between voltage output and the current output. The experiment was conducted in two parts. The first part involved measuring the voltage across the solar cell terminals while the second part involved analyzing the variations in the output voltages at different current outputs. A variable resistor was used in load stimulation to the cell. At a high resistance value, the potentiometer (POT) draws lower currents while at low resistance, the amount of current drawn increases. The voltage was measured using a voltmeter. The power delivered to the load was estimated using the formula, Power = Voltage * Current or Power = Resistance * Current squared. Also, the experiment helped in establishing whether there are any significant differences in the voltage and ampere variations between the series and parallel connections.

## Procedure

The first experiment started by setting up light and a supporting rod. The light bulb was connected to support the rod away from the solar panel. Besides, the bulb was connected to the rod through the first clamp and then the solar power meter turned on. The solar meter was positioned on the support plate in a vertical direction and pointed directly at the light source the meter was slide around while supporting the plate until the highest power red was attained and the amount recorded in Watts/m2. The light bulb/connecting rod was removed from the top of the clamp by releasing the screw on the top. The connecting rod was then inserted into the lower clamp and then the screw tightened. The light was set directly above the cells. The clamp height and the distance from the cell to the bottom were measured and recorded accordingly. Subsequently, two leads of the voltmeter were supplied to the first solar cell and then turned on and then the output measured. The procedure was repeated for other cells and the observation recorded accordingly. Series and parallel connections were made and the voltages measured. For series connection, the red lead (+ terminal) was connected to the red terminal of the voltmeter while the black rod (- terminal) connected to the black terminal of the voltmeter. On the other hand, the parallel connection was made by connecting the positive terminal of cell 1 to the positive terminal of cell 2 and the negative terminals to the negative terminal. The voltage between the red and black terminals was measured and recorded.

Experiment 2 involved measuring the changes in the voltage with the load variation. The cells were connected in series and then the red lead of the first cell connected to the left terminal of the POT. The selector switch of the ammeter was then set to A (direct current amp) scale. The center terminal of the POT was then connected to the red terminal of the ammeter (mA terminal). The black terminal of the ammeter was connected to the black terminal of the second cell and the POT CCW knob turned on. Two knobs of the voltmeter were connected left terminal of the POT. The knob of the voltmeter was set in Ohms (Ω) scale and the resistance of the POT measured. The resistance increased as the knob was adjusted clockwise. The resistance was measured and the corresponding voltages recorded as well.

In a parallel connection, the cells were wet with the red lead of the system being linked to the left terminal of the POT. The knob of the ammeter was set to A (dc amp) scale and then the resistance values varied as the voltage readings done as per the procedure in the series connection. Get a 5 % discount on an order above \$ 20
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