Surveillance and Epidemiology Assignment – 600 words

Surveillance and Epidemiology Assignment – 600 words

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Surveillance and Epidemiology Assignment – 600 words

Surveillance and Epidemiology

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Surveillance and Epidemiology

Surveillance and Reporting

Atrial fibrillation is a common heart disease that affects between 2.7 million and 6.1 million people in the U.S. As part of the public health measure, proper strategies must be put in place to reduce both morbidity and mortality resulting from the condition. Most of the asymptomatic cases go untreated (Hickey, Riga, Mitha & Reading, 2018). Detection and monitoring of atrial fibrillation is done through 12-lead ECG and the ambulatory electrocardiography. The ECG tests provides a brief information on the heart rhythm and so may provide clue on the possible case of atrial fibrillation.

Furthermore, various portable devices and chips have been introduced to help in the surveillance and reporting processes for atrial fibrillation. For example, Apple launched a heart feature in the Apple Watch that notifies the wearers on the atrial fibrillation incidences. Patients can seek further testing such as ECG and management protocols from their healthcare providers after receiving the notifications. Atrial fibrillation is a chronic condition that can sometimes occur unnoticed (Reiffel, 2019). The mobile devices allows the patients to play an active role in the surveillance process. Also, devices such as REVEAL AF are inserted or implanted in the human body to help extract important data used in monitoring the disease (Reiffel, 2019). The monitoring through the devices also helps in estimating the burden of the disease in the population and targeted populations to receive education on both preventing and managing the disease.

Epidemiological Analysis

The prevalence of atrial fibrillation continues to increase globally and this calls for urgent intervention to reduce its burden. Identifying the risk actors will allow the public health and surveillance systems to engage appropriate primary care protocols. People with familial history of atrial fibrillation have higher risk of developing the condition and so should be screened regularly. The risks is higher, about 40%, for the immediate generation born of parents with atrial fibrillation. In addition, the risk varies with age with people aged above 65 years old being at highest risk (Staerk, Sherer, Ko, Benjamin & Helm, 2017). A study by (Staerk, Sherer, Ko, Benjamin & Helm, 2017)estimates that the incidence rate for the people aged between 65 and 74 years is 3.4% while that for the population aged above 74 years is 8.6%. The trend is similar among all races and gender groups.

Men are at higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation compared to women. On the other hand, considering that women live longer, their cumulative lifetime risk is also high. Furthermore, men develop atrial fibrillation 10 years earlier than women. The differences in the risks is linked to genetic disparities and the extent of shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (Pothineni & Vallurupalli, 2018). People with diabetes and hypertension have higher risks of developed atrial fibrillation. Also, lack of enough sleep is associated with the condition.

There are no evidences supporting the variation in the incidences and prevalence of atrial fibrillation by geographical location. Though, some studies have reported differences in the risks by ethnicity and race. The study by Staerk, Sherer, Ko, Benjamin & Helm (2017) reported higher risks and burden among the African Americans compared to the white Americans. People from the low-income regions have poor prognosis since they cannot effectively cater for the financial and social costs required in managing the condition. Electrocardiography helps in detecting incidences and risks of atrial fibrillation, people who do not have the financial power to pay for the tests and other screening procedures may develop complications due to the untreated underlying condition.

Surveillance and Epidemiology Assignment - 600 words

References Surveillance and Epidemiology Assignment – 600 words

Hickey, K. T., Riga, T. C., Mitha, S. A., & Reading, M. J. (2018). Detection and management of atrial fibrillation using remote monitoring. The Nurse Practitioner43(3), 24.

Reiffel, J. A. (2019). Mass screening for atrial fibrillation: the hype, the methods, and the application. The American Journal of Medicine132(6), 668-670.

Staerk, L., Sherer, J. A., Ko, D., Benjamin, E. J., & Helm, R. H. (2017). Atrial fibrillation: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical outcomes. Circulation research120(9), 1501-1517.

Pothineni, N. G., & Vallurupalli, S. (2018). Gender and atrial fibrillation: differences and disparities. US Cardiol Rev12, 1.

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