Saline solution is used to reverse hypotonic hydration

Saline solution is used to reverse hypotonic hydration

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The fluids having lower osmotic pressure than the body fluids are known as hypotonic solutions. For instance, if cells are placed in hypotonic solution, they draw water from the solution and swell.

Saline composition contains 0.9% w/v sodium chloride and administered at the time of low osmotic pressure of blood volume (hypotonic). Homeostasis and isotonic PH of the blood is approximately 7.4 but during hypo- tonicity, body fluids may attain severe hydration therefore there is increase in hypotension. In order to reverse this abnormal hypotonic nature, saline administered to improve salinity and isotonicity of blood volume to normal finally homeostasis attained. Body cell membranes are semipermeable to ions and solutes including water because they are made of phospholipid bilayer. Normally extracellular sodium concentration is higher compared to intracellular sodium concentration but sodium influx into the interstitial space mediated via glucose symport and normal sodium uniport. In case of nerve cell membrane, neurotransmitter often triggers depolarization due to influx of sodium through voltage gated sodium channels inside the membrane. Therefore, saline only improves blood volume when patient is at severe hypotonic and hemorrhaged though IV infusion finally sodium meticulously confined to the extracellular fluid. However, the permeability of saline into the cell membrane is very low and movement of sodium influx takes place only from sodium channels via symport or antiport for instance through NA+-K+ ATPase.

Saline solution is used to reverse hypotonic hydration

Absorption of sodium and other electreolytes is driven by various channels such as “sodium –glucose pump” and also Na+/K+-ATPase pump via the basolateral membrane of epithelia. On the other hand, a few more membrane electrolyte transporters Cl−/HCO3− and Na+/H+ ion exchangers are involved acid-base imbalance.


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