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Assignment 2

1.Identify and describe the five project management processes. What happens in each process?

What are some of the key outputs of each process group?

Project management involves five basic processes. The first process is project conception and initiation. This is where the idea is examined and of what benefit it will be in the organization. The output in this process is the best idea is chosen from among the many that were considered. The second process is project planning and definition. The project scope is put into writing in this stage which outlines the work to be done. The budget is usually calculated in this stage and the needed resources are determined (Kendrick, 2011). The third stage is project launch or execution. Tasks are distributed to all teams where they are informed of their specific responsibilities. If there is any information lacking about the project, a team member is free to bring it out. The fourth process is project performance and control. The project managers will compare the actual process with the plan. If it is lagging behind the managers do what is necessary to bring it back on track. The last process is closure of the project. After everything has been completed and the client has approved the project, it is evaluated in order to highlight the success of the project or learn from its history.

2.What types of activities occur before initiating a project?

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Before a project is initiated, there are several activities that occur. These activities are identification of the project sponsor, selection of the project manager, determination of the scope, time, and cost constraints, developing a business case, and expectations of the project.

3.Approximately how much time do good project managers spend on each process group and why.

The duration of each process varies from one to another. In initiation 4% of the total allocated time is spend. This is because not so much time is required for initiation. In planning it takes about 25% of the total time. This is because this is where the project is designed, and negotiations are made. It requires a lot of time for the project to be successful. Execution takes 55% of the time given. This is because it is the actual phase where the project is build. Monitoring and control will take around 10% of the allocated time (Wirick, 2009). This will occur during the project making. It does not require a lot of time because it only checks whether the project is running as per the plans. Closing the project takes 6% of the time. This is because the project is being closed and is only being analyzed.

4.What is a methodology? Why do organizations need to tailor project management concepts,

such as those found in the PMBOK® Guide, to create their own methodologies? Identify the 4

methodologies mentioned in class/text that IT organizations often use to guide their IT projects?

Methodology is a theoretic and a systematic analysis of methods that are to be applied in a field of study. It entails concepts, models, phases and all techniques to be used. Organizations need to tailor project management concepts to create their own methodologies because without a methodology a project cannot push through.

The 4 methodologies mentioned in book are:

· PMBOK Guide

· project IN controlled Environments (PRINCES2)

· The Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework

· Six Sigma methodologies




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5.What are some of the typical challenges project teams face during each of the five process groups?

When initiating a project the challenge faced is project selection. In planning the challenges are coming up realistic and useful plans. Another challenge is choosing the correct working environment. During execution the challenge is to ensure that all members work properly and avoid conflicts among themselves. When monitoring and controlling the main challenge is for members to adapt to the corrective measures of the project. It is also difficult to identify the areas that need to be improved. When closing the project, the biggest challenge is executing it into a smooth transition into the organizations systems.



· What is a project? What are its main attributes? How is a project different from day-to-day operations?


The project is “temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result”.Day to day operational activities do not have a beginning and end. It’s the daily tasks IT performs to support the users of the company and sustain business (e.g. helpdesk, building servers for projects, software installation and patching, etc.). The main attributes are of project are:


a beginning and an end

a well-defined objective

involves uncertainty

take up resources

incremental development

has a primary customer/sponsor

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2. What is project management? Briefly describe each of the five project management process groups.


Project management is the way of managing change. Everything from the Olympics to organizing a wedding can be considered a project. It describes the activities that meet specific objectives and can be used to introduce or improve new or existing products and services.


The Five project management process groups are:

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Initiating: In project initiation, we create team and a relationship with the customer. Also we have to create the project initiation plan, and procedures. Moreover we should create the environment for the project and workbook.


Planning in project planning phase we can define the project scope, alternatives and feasibility. The project planning can be divided into manageable tasks like Work breakdown structure (WBS), Gant charts and resource planning. We can also develop a preliminary schedule, communication plans among customers, team members and management.


Executing : In project executing phase we Achieve standard for project plan, that’s mean we have to train the new team for this project and keep project on schedule. Also monitor project progress which we can look if we need to adjust budget or time or scope.


Monitoring and controlling : When the execution stage is well under way the project manager should begin making sure everything is going according to plan.


Closing: This project management group marks the end of the project.

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3. What is project constraint? Discuss the triple constraint in project management?


The project constraint has three main point on it which is: Scope, Time, Budget.Project Managers consider these three constrains to achieve the ultimate goal of every project – deliver within the scope, on time and within budget.


4. What is the SDLC? Describe, compare and contrast the predictive (traditional waterfall) model and the adaptive (agile) model.


The SDLC is (system development life cycle) is a common methodology for system development in many organizations. And for the compare between Agile and waterfall I would say that the Waterfall is for projects that art predictable, and agile is for projects that need more flexibility


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