PSY 270,PSY 380,PSY 228

PSY 270PSY 380PSY 228

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This subject is a psycology defrent from the previous, and do the eassy questions to ,you can choose one for each unit exams, i will send you format eassy questions, how you will do for graduate school format.

Thank you.


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458



Text: Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons

5th Edition, 2008

ISBN: 0-13-243409-1 /978-0-13-243409-6


Susan C. Cloninger


Persona Theories

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Personality theories are tested using the method.

A) scientific

B) intuitive

C) clinical

D) idiographic

2) Which of the following illustrates a theoretical proposition?

A) Aggression includes verbal behavior (e.g., insulting someone) as well as physi-

cal behavior (e.g., hitting someone).

B) Frustration can be produced by a malfunctioning soda machine.

C) Frustration is a subjective experience.

D) Frustration leads to aggression.

3) Theoretical constructs which are defined too vaguely lack

A) heuristic value.

B) precision.

C) parsimony.

D) verifiability.

4) A researcher decides to see how consistent a new personality test is by com- puting two scores. One score is the total of the odd-numbered items. The other score is the total of the even-numbered items. What is the researcher assess- ing?

A) test-retest reliability

B) validity

C) split-half reliability

D) alternate forms reliability

5) Which approach to reliability can be used if subjects are tested on only one occasion, using only one test?

A) alternate forms reliability

B) test-retest reliability

C) split half reliability

D) No reliability tests are possible with only one testing session.

6) Direct self-report measures of personality

A) are seldom used.

B) are valid even when subjects intentionally give false responses.

C) always measure several personality traits simultaneously.

D) are often reliable.



Persona Theories


7) A researcher is interested in testing the proposition that being in a good mood causes increased cooperation among children at school. This can be tested by conducting an experiment in which the dependent variable is

A) mood.

B) cooperation.

C) being in school.

D) age.

8) Psychobiography is different from case studies because psychobiography has more emphasis on

A) pathology.

B) experimental methods.

C) the individual.

D) theoretical considerations.

9) The dependent variable corresponds to what a researcher thinks is the

A) cause.

B) third variable.

C) uncontrollable factor.

D) effect.

10) Freud’s theory challenged our trust in

A) hypnosis.

B) science.

C) therapy.

D) conscious experience.

11) A”Freudian slip”is caused by

A) unconscious wishes.

B) catharsis.

C) childhood trauma.

D) dreams.

12) Which kind of person is most likely to deal with impulses through sublima- tion?

A) a creative artist

B) a child

C) a neurotic

D) a psychotic


Personal Theories


13) Optimism, passivity, and dependency are characteristic of the

A) oral character.

B) latent character.

C) phallic character.

D) anal character.

14) Before he abandoned the seduction hypothesis, Freud believed that psychiat- ric maladjustment in his female patients was caused by

A) seduction of children by strangers.

B) excessive talk about adult sexuality in the presence of children.

C) fear of sexual temptations.

D) incest between daughters and their fathers.

15) Most experts agree that recovered memories of sexual abuse are

A) accurate for female victims but not for male victims.

B) inaccurate in many cases.

C) accurate for male victims but not for female victims.

D) almost always accurate.

16) The archetypes that are closest to consciousness are

A) the Hero and the Trickster.

B) the Great Mother and the Spiritual Father.

C) the Shadow and the Anima (or Animus).

D) the Mandala and the Self.

17) Jung understood religious symbolism in terms of

A) the persona.

B) the diffusion hypothesis.

C) the personal unconscious.

D) the collective unconscious.

18) Jung dreamt of “looking up at” a patient whom he had been viewing with little respect. This dream was interpreted (in the text) according to the principle of

A) amplification.

B) individuation.

C) compensation.

D) synchronicity.


Persona Theories


19) People whose psychic energy tends to “flow outward’toward external reality

are types.

A) intuitive

B) extraverted e) sensation 0) feeling

20) Jungian psychological types have been found to influence people’s behavior in

A) eyewitness testimony.

B) business. e) education.

0) all of the above

21) In his explanation of the concept of organ inferiority, Adler emphasized

A) determinism.

B) the subjective experience of the child. e) the inheritance of personality.

0) the impact of physical limitations on the development of intelligence.

22) The unknown part of a person’s fictionally final goal is

A) irrelevant to psychological functioning.

B) the unconscious.

e) likely to cause emotional problems.

D) repressed because of painful childhood experiences.

23) According to Adler, the most important determinant of personality is

A) parental behavior.

B) birth order.

e) biological factors.

0) a person’s own choices.

24) What do Adlerians offer parents?

A) the threat of lawsuits

B) legal options e) sympathy

0) training programs


Persona Theories


25) Adler’s major criterion for psychological health is

A) high achievement in school.

B) the absence of anxiety.

C) social interest.

D) creativity.


Persona Theories

Written Assignment for Unit One

Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1) Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of psychobiography as an approach to understanding personality.

2) How was Jung’s understanding of the unconscious different from that of Freud?

3) Describe a mentally healthy personality, according to Adler.



Personal Theories

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

t) Erikson’s basic principle for understanding development was the _


A) compensatory

B) epigenetic

C) conflict

D) self-actualization

2) According to Erikson’s epigenetic principle,

A) some people are more gifted, genetically, than others.

B) people get what they deserve out of life.

C) males and females are different because of their biology.

D) development proceeds according to a biologically-based plan, with sequential development of parts.

3) According to Erikson’s theory, the sense of is particularly likely to

interfere with an individual’s initiative.

A) mistrust

B) shame

C) guilt

D) despair

4) In Erikson’s third psychosocial stage, the child acts in a(n) mode.

A) intrusive

B) incorporative

C) incompetent 0) selfish

5) Culture’s “ideal prototypes” support the ego strength of

A) initiative.

B) identity.

C) fidelity.

0) autonomy.

6) Individual rituals that are defensive, such as obsessive hand-washing, are

called by Erikson.

A) ritualisms

B) ideal prototypes

C) compulsions 0) moratoria




7) Erikson described girls as more concerned with than boys.

A) aggression

B) conflict

C) inner space 0) building

8) According to Horney, the two most important emotions in infancy which help understand later development are

A) fear and love.

B) hope and trust.

C) anxiety and hostility. 0) depression and joy.

9) In Horney’s view, a neurotic person is alienated from the self.

A) real

B) actual

C) idealized 0) physical

10) Horney described some people as over-valuing the idealized self. The term for

this is “the tyranny of the ”

A) shoulds

B) conscience

C) idealized self 0) neurotic ideal

11) According to Horney, differences between men and women are

A) primarily due to biological causes.

B) not very great, when we really get to know people.

C) primarily due to lack of communication. 0) primarily due to cultural forces.

12) Research with parents and children, using Ainsworth’s strategy of observing infants in the presence of a stranger,

A) shows that all infants are frightened of strangers.

B) shows that infants raised by neurotic parents prefer a stranger to their biologi- cal mothers.

C) disconfirms Horney’s theory.

0) is consistent with Horney’s theory.


Personal Theories


13) Which interpersonal orientation(s) does a healthy person use, according to Horney?

A) moving toward, against, and away

B) moving against, but not toward or away

C) moving away, but not toward or against 0) moving toward, but not against or away

14) Allport defined personality as “the within the individual of those

psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environ- ment:’

A) development

B) dynamic organization

C) existence 0) nurturance

15) Which of the following is not a value measured by the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values?

A) Academic

B) Aesthetic

C) Religious 0) Theoretical

16) Which way of describing George best illustrates Allport’s concept of central traits?

A) George is not like anyone else I know.

B) George is a typical Englishman.

C) George is like a lamb; he is very meek.

0) George is intelligent, ambitious, deceptive, good-looking, friendly, athletic, and selfish.

17) Secondary traits describe ways in which

A) people try to get their own way in competitive settings.

B) people are inferior to others.

C) personality can be measured by questionnaire.

0) people are consistent, but in ways that affect few behaviors.



18) According to psychoanalysis, people are motivated by experiences in their past. Which concept from Allport contrasts with this view?

A) central traits

B) habits

C) extrinsic orientation

D) functional autonomy

19) Cattell classified projective tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, as

A) Q-data.

B) L-data.

C) T-data.

D) D-data.

20) The Culture Fair Intelligence Test is designed to measure

A) the impact of culture on intelligence.

B) race differences in intelligence.

C) fluid intelligence.

D) crystallized intelligence.

21) Constitutional, dynamic source traits such as anger, curiosity, and fear are called

A) sentiments.

B) metaergs.

C) ergs.

D) attitudes.

22) The Big Five model

A) offers a therapy approach.

B) explains personality.

C) describes personality.

D) all of the above

23) The best way to raise a child who has an inhibited temperament, in order to produce a well-adapted personality, is to

A) encourage the child to explore the environment and give warnings when ap-


B) provide strict discipline.

C) continue setting high standards for the child to achieve.

D) do not interfere with the child’s innate tendencies.


Persona Theories


24) The term that refers to a person’s inherited genetic profile is

A) genotype.

B) temperament.

C) genome.

0) phenotype.

25) The fundamental assumption of evolutionary approaches is that

A) genetic variations that enhance reproductive success will become more fre-

quent over generations as a result of natural selection.

B) males are superior to females.

C) experience does not influence personality.

0) biology influences physical but not behavioral characteristics.


Personal Theories

Written Assignment for Unit Two

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1) Select one of Erikson’s first four stages of development. What crisis occurs

at that stage? What ego strength develops? How does culture support that ego strength?

2) Explain what Horney meant by”womb envy:’

3) What did Allport believe about the consistency of personality?





Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) An important variable that Skinner studied was

A) love.

B) the rate of responding.

C) physiological responses.

D) social attitudes.

2) Skinner invented a device for studying learning. What was it called?

A) the lever

B) the Skinner box

C) the paired associate device

D) the memory drum

3) Punishment

A) influences only the behavior that is punished.

B) reduces the frequency of behavior.

C) was recommended by Skinner as a means of controlling behavior.

D) all of the above

4) Instead of spanking a child for using obscene language, Skinner would recom- mend

A) reasoning with the child about appropriate behavior.

B) using even worse language, so the child can hear how terrible it sounds.

C) reinforcing the child for using desirable language.

D) washing the child’s mouth out with soap.

5) Matthew has learned to tease his little sister, Jane. When he first meets his cousin, Sarah, he teases her, too. What learning concept best explains this teasing of Sarah?

A) negative reinforcement

B) generalization

C) ratio schedule reinforcement

D) discrimination


Personal Theories


6) Every response is reinforced in a schedule.

A) partial

B) continuous

C) ratio

D) interval

7) Which schedule is known for producing “scalloped” records of responses, in which periods of slow responding alternate with period of rapid responding?

A) variable interval schedules

B) variable ratio schedules

C) fixed interval schedules

D) fixed ratio schedules

8) Staats advanced behavioral theory by

A) translating personality concepts into behavioral language.

B) showing the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforce- ment.

C) developing a more advanced Skinner box.

D) being the first behaviorist to study humans.

9) According to Staats, stimuli that elicit emotional responses

A) can be effective for punishment, but not for positive reinforcement.

B) function as reinforcers for new learning.

C) are not suitable to use as reinforcers for children.

D) all of the above

10) Miller and Dollard suggested that “in order to learn, one must -‘ no-

tice something, do something, and get something:’

A) want something

B) see something

C) avoid something

D) have something


Persona Theories


11) Which of the following best defines a cue in the sense that Dollard and Miller used the term?

A) a vague idea about what is desired

B) the reward for a behavior

C) distinctive stimuli that a person notices at the time of behavior

D) an ordered list of possible responses

12) Which of the following can be a reward, in Dollard and Miller’s theory?

A) approval

B) money

C) food

D) all of the above

13) In the third stage of child development, according to Dollard and Miller, a child is often punished for

A) wetting the bed.

B) poor eating habits.

C) masturbation.

D) messiness.

14) Anxiety is most likely to be experienced in an approach-avoidance conflict if

A) the avoidance gradient is always higher than the approach gradient.

B) the approach gradient crosses the avoidance gradient, and the person is very far from the goal.

C) the approach gradient crosses the avoidance gradient, and the person is at the point where the two gradients cross.

D) the approach gradient is always higher than the avoidance gradient.

15) There are two ways Jane can get to school. If she walks, unfriendly dogs will bark at her. If she rides the bus, the school bully will pull her braids. What kind of conflict is she experiencing?

A) avoidance-avoidance conflict

B) double approach-avoidance conflict

C) approach-avoidance conflict

D) approach-approach conflict


Persona Theories


16) Despite numerous physical difficulties, artist Frida Kahlo believed she could be successful in her work. This is called

A) cognitive bias

B) self-efficacy

C) collective efficacy

D) id inflation

17) According to Mischel, traits behavior.

A) predict

B) cause

C) contradict

D) describe

18) “If Jerry is shouting now, he may soon hit sorneone.This is an example of a

A) stimulus-outcome expectancy

B) prototype

C) self-efficacy expectancy

D) behavior-outcome expectancy

19) Self-efficacy has been found to help treatment programs for

A) weight loss.

B) phobias.

C) AIDS prevention.

D) all of the above

20)A person high in self-efficacy

A) is high in overall intelligence.

B) believes he or she can act effectively in a situation.

C) is healthy.

D) is popular.

21) Kelly proposed a metaphor of man as

A) creator.

B) scientist.

C) zookeeper.

D) architect.


Persona Theories


22) The range of convenience of a construct describes

A) the extent to which the construct is adaptive in a person’s life.

B) the age at which the construct was formed.

C) the likelihood that the construct will change.

D) the events to which the construct applies.

23) One sign of good mental health is

A) having many concrete constructs.

B) slot movement.

C) having dichotomous constructs.

D) cognitive complexity.

24) Compared to threat, fear is concerned with constructs.

A) incidental

B) interpersonal

C) comprehensive

D) physical

25) Linda tends to think about alternatives for too long, without making a choice

about how to act in a situation. She should work on the stage of the

C -P-C cycle.

A) first

B) third

C) second

D) none of the above


Personal Theories

Written Assignment for Unit Three

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1) Explain Skinner’s objection to mentalistic ideas such as “intention:’

2) How does psychological behaviorism explain adjustment and maladjustment?

3) Explain Dollard and Miller’s concept of an approach-avoidance conflict. Give a hypothetical example.



Personal Theories

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Rogers regarded the fundamental motivation to be

A) sexual needs.

B) interpersonal needs.

C) the actualizing tendency. 0) the need for security.

2) Rogers described a force for growth in all of nature. He called this the

A) formative tendency

B) anti-entropy tendency

C) self-actualizing tendency 0) actualizing tendency

3) Which of the following was not one of the characteristics of a fully functioning person listed by Rogers?

A) existential living

B) openness to experience

C) creativity

0) social interest

4) Unconditional positive regard means loving someone _

A) regard less of that person’s behavior

B) because you yourself feel loved

C) unwisely

0) without considering the consequences

5) When therapists from the majority white culture are counseling minority cli-

ents, there are often difficulties with according to the text.

A) unconditional positive regard

B) empathic understanding

C) payment

0) congruence



Personal Theories


6) According to research on Rogerian therapy, the correlation between the real self and the ideal self

A) decreases after therapy.

B) increases after therapy. e) is unaffected by therapy. 0) is not a useful measure.

7) The leader of an encounter group is called a

A) “facilitator:’

B) “resource person:’ e) “leader:’

0) “trainer:’

8) “Satellite relationships” are

A) unhealthy dependent relationships among family members.

B) relationships with people other than the spouse or primary partner, sometimes involving sexual intimacy.

e) a primary example of Rogers’s influence on organizational development. 0) consulting relationships with another therapist, to get a second opinion.

9) Rogers suggested that political tensions could be reduced through

A) encounter groups.

B) economic cooperation.

e) providing political leaders with psychotherapy. 0) better education.

10) Maslow’s vision of “Taoist Science” emphasizes

A) the separation of the observer and the subject.

B) control of experimental error. e) objectivity.

0) love and respect for the subject matter.



11) The need to be all that you can be, to fulfill all your potentials, is typical of

the level of the need hierarchy.

A) second

B) fourth

C) third 0) fifth

12) Which of the following is listed by Maslow as a characteristic of self-actual- ized people?

A) need for privacy

B) intelligence

C) career success 0) many friends

13) Which of the following is characteristic of self-actualized people, according to Maslow?

A) firm belief in the values of their society

B) rejection of sexual needs

C) spontaneity

0) a sense that life is highly predictable

14) Maslow’s need hierarchy theory helps us understand

A) why consumers sometimes pay more for prestigious versions of products.

B) why economically secure people sometimes turn to the arts and education.

C) why consumers choose some products over others. 0) all of the above

15)The term “positive psychology” refers to

A) a current emphasis in psychology on subjective experience and psychological


B) all the empirically verified findings within psychology.

C) a philosophical position that emphasizes scientific observation.

0) political activism in favor of increased funding for psychological research.


Persona Theories

16) The Dalai Lama has achieved a higher stage of consciousness by following the Eightfold path. Buddhists call this status

A) actualization.

B) self-actualization.

C) ego-integrity.

D) enlightenment.

17) is defined as any form of spiritual practice.

A) Guru

B) Karma

C) Yoga

D) Koan

18) The story of the blind men touching different parts of an elephant and

each concluding it is a different animal demonstrates the potential problems

of _

A) meditation

B) perception

C) yoga

D) sensation

19) The method of achieving an end of suffering described in the Fourth Noble Truth is called

A) detachment.

B) meditation.

C) the Eightfold Path.

D) thought-action orientation.

20) Research has demonstrated that meditation improves

A) vocabulary.

B) mathematical ability.

C) perceptual attention.

D) musical ability.



Persona Theories


21) Which of the following theorists was more concerned with personality health than with pathology?

A) Freud

B) Maslow

C) Horney

D) all of the above

22) Regarding cultural diversity, your text concludes that

A) Researchers are unaware of the problem of cultural bias in personality theory.

B) the theories presented in the text are valid in all cultures.

C) further exploration is needed to determine the extent of cultural bias in the theories presented.

D) some of the theories presented are culturally biased; others are free of cultural bias.

23) When adult personality does not change

A) it may be that situational pressures contribute to stability (for example, be- cause of the similarity of adults to their spouses).

B) it proves the greater importance of childhood experience in determining per- sonality.

C) it proves that strong inner stability makes a person resistant to environmental pressures to change.

D) it is clear that environment does not influence adult personality.

24) Emergent determinism suggests that

A) personality emerges from a social context, without which it cannot be under- stood.

B) basic physiological drives, represented in the nervous system, determine per- sonality.

C) higher order mental processes have a causal role in personality.

D) ultimately, personality is determined by environmental factors.

25) Which of the following has been proposed as evidence of a healthy personal- ity?

A) rigidity

B) integration or unity

C) conflict

D) all of the above





Written Assignment for Unit Four

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1 )List and explain characteristics of a fully functioning person.

2)List and explain the three major conditions for effective therapy, according to Rogers.

3)Explain the term “paradigm:’ How does a paradigm influence research?


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