Microbiology Lab Report

Microbiology Lab Report

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I need a lab report for Microbiology. I did two swabs one of a water fountain and one swab of a classmate nose both in agar. It was divided into 4 different squares using different antibiotic seeing there was any growth. The 4 sides was wrote out like this, Tray 1-Pencillin 10 units, Tray 2- Streptomycin 10mcg, Tray 3- Chloramphenicol 30mcg, Tray 4- Ampicillin 10mcg. We used a Corning/LSE Benchtop Shaking Incubator 37* heat and for 48 hrs. It was to see where the growth gravitated toward which antibiotic. #1 Agar was nose swab and the growth was in 3&4 size of a penny and most of the growth was in tray 4. Agar 2 was the water fountain and the only growth was in #2 streptomycin 10mcg size of a pencil mark. I need for the different antibiotics to be described and how they can be used.

BACTERIA, ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Microbiology Lab Report

Photo: Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, NIAID (from flickr).1

Photo: Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, NIAID (from flickr).2

By ReAct Funding from Marie-Claire Cronstedts Stiftelse

BASIC LECTURE

OUTLINE OF THIS LECTURE

•  About bacteria

•  About antibiotics

•  Antibiotic resistance –  How does it form and spread?

–  What are the consequences for global health?

•  What can you do?

ABOUT BACTERIA •  Bacteria are small (microscopic size) organisms that can

be found in most environments, for example in soil, water and on and inside the human body

•  There are around 50 million bacteria in every gram of surface soil

•  We would not survive without them! –  Help degrade the food we eat –  Protect against pathogens

Photo: Bacteria, Umberto Salvagnin (from flickr).3

•  A few bacteria can be dangerous to our health by causing infections and even death

•  We can get them from outside the body: –  Other humans, animals, food, water

•  Sometimes our “own” bacteria can cause disease

•  Examples of bacterial infections: –  Pneumonia –  Blood stream infections –  Urinary tract infections –  Wound infections –  The sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea

DISEASE-CAUSING BACTERIA

Photo: Klebsiella pneumoniae, NIAID (from flickr). 4

•  Antibiotics are medicines for bacterial infections

•  Examples of antibiotics: –  Penicillin and Ciprofloxacin

•  Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 –  Introduced as medicine in the 1940’s

•  Antibiotics can have “broad” or “narrow” spectrum –  Broad spectrum: Active against many different types of bacteria –  Narrow spectrum: Active against one or a few types of bacteria

ANTIBIOTICS

Photo: Antibiotics, Michael Mortensen (from flickr). 5

•  Antibiotics do not work against viruses!

ANTIBIOTICS

European Antibiotic Awareness Day key messages, ECDC.

•  Examples of viral infections: –  The common cold –  The flu (influenza)

ANTIBIOTICS •  Antibiotics are effective against bacteria

–  However, antibiotics have only marginal effect against some bacterial infections such as uncomplicated sinus infections and ear infections (bacterial otitis)

–  The body’s immune system can normally take care of these infections without antibiotics

•  But for some bacterial infections antibiotics are life-saving medicines! –  For example for blood stream infections (sepsis) and

pneumonia

•  Before antibiotics there was no effective cure for bacterial infections

•  Antibiotics were considered “a miracle cure”

•  Antibiotics cure infections, prevent infections upon surgery, and make transplantations and cancer treatment safer

ANTIBIOTICS

è Saved countless lives! è Made modern medicine possible!

•  Antibiotics are the cornerstones of modern medicine!

Microbiology Lab Report

ANTIBIOTICS

Photo: M. Pränting

•  Massive use of antibiotics the past 80 years, both appropriate and inappropriate has lead to:

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Photo: Drug resistance by Iqbal Osman (from flickr). 6

Increased occurrence and spread of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE = The ability of bacteria to protect themselves against the effects of an antibiotic

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

•  Bacteria are experts at surviving in changing environments

•  In large bacterial populations there are often a few resistant bacteria

•  Antibiotics select for resistant bacteria

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Population of mainly susceptible bacteria

Antibiotics kill or stop growth of susceptible bacteria

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE •  Antibiotics select for resistant bacteria

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Is antibiotic resistance a problem?

•  Antibiotic resistance leads to treatment failures

•  Antibiotic resistance threatens our ability to perform modern medical procedures

•  Antibiotic resistance imposes a major economic burden on society

•  Antibiotic resistant bacteria already cause many deaths around the world

Antibiotic resistant bacteria each year cause: •  More than 38,000 deaths in Thailanda

•  More than 23,000 deaths in the USAb

•  25,000 deaths in the European Unionc

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Photo: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bacteria by NIAID (from flickr) 7

aPhumart P, Phodha T et al. Health and Economic Impacts of Antimicrobial Resistant Infections in Thailand: A Preliminary Study. J. Health Syst Res. (2012) 6(3). bUS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. (2013). http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/ pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf cECDC/EMEA. Technical Report. The bacterial challenge: time to react. (Sept 2009). http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/ 0909_TER_The_Bacterial_Challenge_Time_to_React.pdf

… but the consequences of antibiotic resistance are most severe for the poor. For example:

•  In South Asia (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh) one newborn child dies every 5 minutes from blood stream infections (sepsis) because the antibiotics given are not effective due to bacterial resistancea

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

aBhutta Z, Presentation at the Global Need for Effective Antibiotics – Moving towards Concerted Action. http://www.reactgroup.org/uploads/publications/presentations/ opening-session-zulfiqar-bhutta.pdf

•  Antibiotic resistance is a global issue! –  Exists on all continents –  Affects both low- and high income countries –  Affects both strong and weak health systems

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Photo: The Blue Marble, Eastern Hemisphere March 2014, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (from flickr). 8

How did we end up here?

How did we end up here?

USE & INAPPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS •  Use in human and animal medicine •  Use to increase growth of farm animals •  Use for routine prophylaxis in farm animals

à Selection and maintenance of resistance

SPREAD OF RESISTANT BACTERIA •  Poor hygiene and

sanitation •  Food and water •  Travel

How did we end up here?

USE & INAPPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS à Selection and maintenance of resistance

How did we end up here?

SPREAD OF RESISTANT BACTERIA

USE & INAPPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS à Selection and maintenance of resistance

LACK OF NEW ANTIBIOTICS •  The last new antibiotic class that has been

introduced as medicine was discovered in 1987 •  Older antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective

due to antibiotic resistance

•  No new drugs for typhoid fever, gonorrhea, blood stream infections or postoperative infections

•  Some bacteria already resistant to all available antibiotics

LACK OF NEW ANTIBIOTICS

Adapted from Silver 2011

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

•  Use antibiotics only when you need it –  Not for a common cold or the flu

•  Ask your doctor for advise –  Don’t pressure

–  Don’t self medicate

•  Wash your hands, especially…. –  Before and after handling and preparing food

–  After visiting the bathroom

•  Teach others about antibiotic resistance!

Thank you for your attention!

For more information about antibiotic resistance, please visit:

www.reactgroup.org www.reactgroup.org/toolbox

1 Photo: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteria, the Cause of TB by NIAID

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