HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health

HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health

HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health

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Update: 2/23/2020
University of Maryland University College
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health- FINAL EXAM Spring 2021
Dataset: HMGTFINALEXAM.csv (Please download dataset from the class)
Required program: EXCEL
Author, Hossein Zare, PhD
Citation: Zare, H. (2019). HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health Care.FINAL EXAM. UMGC.EDU
Question #1 (15 credits):[RStudio Users and Excel Users]
The FINAL EXAM dataset provides some information about hospitals in 2011 and 2012.Download the FINAL
EXAM data and then complete the descriptive table. Please answer the following questions.
A) In terms of hospital characteristics, what are the significant differences between 2011 and 2012?
B) In terms of socio-economic variables what are the significant differences between 2011 and 2012?
(To report the “Per Capita Hospital Beds to Population”, you need to divide
“total_hospital_beds/tot_population)
C) Based on your findings, in which years did hospitals have better performance? How is hospital
performance related to hospital characteristics and socio-economic characteristics? Please write at least
three main differences between 2011 and 2012.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics between hospitals in 2011 & 2012
2011 2012 p-value
N Mean St. Dev N Mean St. Dev
Hospital Characteristics
1. Hospital beds
2. Number of paid Employees
3. Number of non-paid Employees
4. Interns and Residents
5. System Membership
6. Total hospital cost
7. Total hospital revenues
8. Hospital net benefit
9. Available Medicare days
10. Available Medicaid days
11. Total Hospital Discharge
12. Medicare discharge
13. Medicaid discharge
Socio-Economic Variables
14. Per Capita Hospital Beds to
Population
15. Percent of population under
poverty
16. Percent of Female population
under poverty
17. Percent of Male population
under poverty
18. Median Household Income
(Hospital net benefit= Hospital revenues – Hospital costs). Round all figures to 2 decimal places max
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,1
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https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #2 (15 credits):[RStudio Users and Excel Users]
Use the final exam dataset and then answer the following questions.
Compare the following information between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals:
1) What are the main significant differences between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals? Which test is the best
fit test? Why?
2) Use a box-plot and compare Hospital net benefit between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.
3) Show another scatterplot, and compare hospital cost (x-axis) and revenue (y-axis),then discuss your findings?
4) Comparing hospital net benefit, which hospitals has better performance? (Hospital net benefit= Hospital
revenues – Hospital costs)
5) Overall, what are the main significant differences between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals?
Table 2. Descriptive statistics between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals, 2011 & 2012
For-Profit Not-For-Profit p-value
N Mean St. Dev N Mean St. Dev
Hospital Characteristics
1. Hospital beds
2. Number of paid Employees
3. Number of non-paid Employees
4. Interns and Residents
5. System Membership
6. Total hospital cost
7. Total hospital revenues
8. Hospital net benefit
9. Available Medicare days
10. Available Medicaid days
11. Total Hospital Discharge
12. Medicare discharge
13. Medicaid discharge
Socio-Economic Variables
14. Per Capita Hospital Beds to
Population
15. Percent of population under
poverty
16. Percent of Female population
under poverty
17. Percent of Male population
under poverty
18. Median Household Income
Round all figures to 2 decimal places max
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,2
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #3 (15 credits):[RStudio Users and Excel Users]
The dataset provides Herfindahl–Hirschman Index for health insurance market, please use the herf_ins variable and
answer the following questions:
For this exercise you do not need to compute the HHI, but if you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask
me, but try to learn more about this as you will need that to report your findings.
Please remember for the class exercise you used the herf_cat as a hospital Herfindahl index. For this question make
sure to use herf_ins as Herfindahl index for insurance market.
Use the final exam dataset and then answer the following questions:
1) In a short paragraph explain the Herfindahl index. You can use the reference provided in the class
exercise or any other citation.
2) Compare the following information between hospitals located in high, moderate and low competitive
health insurance markets?
o What are the main significant differences between hospitals in different markets? (use
ANOVA test)
o What is the impact of being in high-competitive health insurance market on hospital revenues
and cost?
o Do you think being in a high-competitive market has a positive impact on hospital net
benefits?
o What about the number of Medicare and Medicaid discharge? Do you think hospitals in high
competitive markets are more likely to accept more Medicare and Medicaid patients?
o What is the impact of other variables?
(Note: to answer the last 2 questions, compute the Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-dischargeratio first and then run 2 independent t-tests: Total Medicare or Medicaid Discharge/Total Hospital
Discharge)high vs. moderate and high vs. low competitive market), please support your findings with
box-plots).
Table 3. Comparing hospital characteristics and market, 2011 and 2012
High Competitive
Market
Moderate Competitive
Market
Low Competitive
Market
P Value
[ANOVA/ChiSq
Hospital Characteristics (results)]
N Mean STD N Mean STD N Mean STD
1. Hospital beds
2. Number of paid Employees
3. Number of non-paid Employees
4. Interns and Residents
5. System Membership
6. Total hospital cost
7. Total hospital revenues
8. Hospital net benefit
9. Available Medicare days
10. Available Medicaid days
11. Total Hospital Discharge
12. Medicare-discharge-ratio
13. Medicaid-discharge-ratio
Socio-Economic Variables
14. Per Capita Hospital Beds to
Population
15. Median Household Income
(Hospital net benefit= Hospital revenues – Hospital costs). Round all figures to 2 decimal places max
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,3
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #4 (Credits 20):[RStudio Users]
Linear Regression Model
If you have chosen to work with RStudio, please run the following model and complete the following tables.
1st Model:
Run a linear model and predict the impact of difference in hospital beds and hospital ownership on hospital net
benefit.
Model 1
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St. Err
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
N
R-Squared
1. Discuss your finding; do you think having higher beds has a positive impact on the hospital net benefit?
What about ownership?
2nd Model:
Now, estimate the impact of system membership (i.e., being a member of a system) on hospital net benefit.
Model 2
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St. Err
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
Membership
System Membership
N
R-Squared
2. Discuss your findings (no more than 2 lines). Is it significant?
3nd Model:
Now, include the Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio in your model.
Model 3
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St.
Err
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
Membership
System Membership
Socio-Economic Characteristics
Medicare-discharge-ratio
Medicaid-discharge-ratio
N
R-Squared
3. How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital net benefit?
4. Based on your finding, recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance. Please make sure to use the
final model for your recommendations.
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,4
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #4 (Credits 20): [Excel Users]
If you have chosen to work with Excel, please run the models and complete the following tables.
Model 1:
Run a linear model to predict the impact of difference between hospital beds on hospital net-benefit in teaching
hospitals
Note: hospital-net-benefit=total_hosp_revenue – total_hosp_cost
Y(benefit), B0+B1(beds)
Hospital Characteristics Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-1
Hospital beds
N
R Square
Model 2:
Run a linear model to predict the impact of difference between hospital beds on hospital net-benefit in non-teaching
hospitals
Hospital Characteristics Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-2
Hospital beds
N
R Square
1. Using the results from model 1 and model 2, compare the results between teaching and non-teaching
hospitals.
Model 3:
Now, include the Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio in first model
Hospital Characteristics Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-3
Hospital beds
Medicare-discharge-ratio
Medicaid-discharge-ratio
N
R Square
2. How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital net benefit in
teaching hospitals?
Model 4:
Now, include the Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio in second model
Hospital Characteristics Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-4
Hospital beds
Medicare-discharge-ratio
Medicaid-discharge-ratio
N
R Square
3. How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital net benefit in
non-teaching hospitals?
4. Based on your finding(s) recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Please make sure to use the final model for your recommendations.
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,5
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #5 (Credits 20):[RStudio Users]
If you have chosen to work with RStudio, please run three models and complete the following tables.
Model 1
Run a logit model to find out the impact of being a member of a network on hospital ownership and hospital beds.
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St. Err p-value
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
N
AIC
Model 2
Now, include hospital net benefit (income) and report the Coefficient.
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St. Err p-value
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
Hospital net benefit
N
AIC
Model 3
Now, include the Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio in your model. Keep all variables you used
for models 1, 2 & 3 and discuss your findings.
Hospital Characteristics Coef. St. Err p-value
Hospital beds
Ownership
For-Profit
Not-for-profit
Other
Hospital Income
Medicare-discharge-ratio
Medicaid-discharge-ratio
N
AIC
1. Discuss application of different models and the results you received. Do you recommend keeping
membership (i.e., being a member of a network) for a hospital? Why or why not?
2. Based on your finding(s), recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance in for-profit and notfor-profit hospitals. Please make sure to use the final model for your recommendations.
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,6
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question #5 (Credits 20): [Excel Users]
If you have chosen to work with Excel, please run three models and complete the following tables.
Model 1: Run a regression model to find out the impact of being a member of a network on hospital cost.
Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-1
Hospital cost
N
R Square
Model 2: Run a regression model to find out the impact of being a member of a network on hospital cost and
hospital revenue.
Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-2
Hospital cost
Hospital Revenue
N
R Square
Model 3: Run a regression model to find out the impact of being a member of a network on Medicare-dischargeratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio (include hospital cost and hospital revenue in model).
Coef. ST. ERR T Stat P-values Lower 95% Upper 95%
Model-3
Hospital cost
Hospital Revenue
Medicare-discharge-ratio
Medicaid-discharge-ratio
N
R Square
1. Based on your finding(s) please recommend 3 policies and discuss the relationship (impact)between
hospital cost, hospital revenue, Medicare-discharge-ratio and Medicaid-discharge-ratio, and system
membership (i.e., being a member of a network). Do you recommend keeping membership for a hospital?
Why or why not?
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,7
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Question 6: (15 credits) [RStudio Users and Excel Users]
Note: Please limit your answer for each question to maximum 2 paragraphs and make sure to
support your responses with at least one credible citation – following APA 7.
1. Present a research question for a study using human subject research.
2. Explain the difference between the research process involving human subjects and the research process not
involving human subjects.
3. Discuss ethical implications surrounding human subject research studies.
4. Explain the governance of human subject research studies over the data and the process.
5. Provide examples of the consequences for not meeting IRB (Institutional Review Board) protocol
requirements.
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,8
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https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
Useful formula and guideline.
HMGT 400 Research and Data Analysis in Health—FINAL EXAM,9
The computation of the p-value is illustrated in
following figures.
This study source was downloaded by 100000849031669 from CourseHero.com on 10-05-2022 08:41:25 GMT -05:00
https://www.coursehero.com/file/82910944/HMGT400FinalExam-EXCEL-RStudio-Spring2021docx/
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