Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

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Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

PURPOSE

Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

 

The Critical Appraisal Exercise Paper is the first of three related assignments which are due in Unit 3. The purpose of this initial paper is to briefly describe your search strategies when identifying two articles that pertain to an evidence-based practice topic of interest.

COURSE OUTCOMES

 

This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes.

CO 1: Examine the sources of knowledge that contribute to professional nursing practice. (PO #7)

CO 2: Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs

#4 and #8)

CO 3: Identify ethical issues common to research involving human subjects. (PO 6)

CO 4: Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and clinical significance related to evidence-

based practice. (POs 4 and 8)

CO 5: Recognize the role of research findings in evidence-based practice. (POs 7 and 8)

 

DUE DATE

Refer to the course calendar for due date. The college’s Late Assignment policy applies to this activity.

POINTS POSSIBLE

These Faculty assignments are worth 100, 100, & 125 points. The college’s Late Assignment policy applies to this activity.

REQUIREMENTS

Students are required to complete the www.critical appraisal exercises on pp. 126, 246, & 316.  In order to receive full points, all questions must be answered completely.

 

The paper will include the following.

  1. Format
    1. Correct grammar and spelling
    2. Use of headings for each section
    3. Use of APA format (sixth edition)
    4. Page length: two to three pages

PREPARING THE PAPER

 

  1. Paper should include a title page and a reference pag

 

DIRECTIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA FOR FACULTY ASSIGNMENTS #1 & #2

 

Assignment

Criteria

Points % Description
Clinical Question  

30

30 1.   Problem is described.  What is the focus of your group’s work?

2.   Significance of the problem is described. What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem?

3.   What was the identified PICOT question?

4.   Purpose of your paper. What will your paper do or describe?

This is similar to a problem statement. “The purpose of this paper is to . . .”

Levels of

Evidence

40 40 1.   What type of question are you asking (therapy, prognosis, meaning, etc.)?

2.  Questions criteria answered

3.  Use Table 1.4 to identify the ratings systems for grading levels of  evidence

4. Use Table 1.5

 

2.   What is the best type of evidence to be found to answer that question (e.g., RCT, cohort study, qualitative study)?

 

 

Format 30 30 1.   Correct grammar and spelling

2.   Use of headings for each section: Clinical Question, Level of

Evidence, Conclusion

3.   APA format (sixth ed.)

4.   Paper length: three to four pages

Total 100 100  
 

 

GRADING RUBRIC

 

 

Assignment

Criteria

 

Outstanding or Highest

Level of Performance

 

A (92–100%)

 

Very Good or High Level of

Performance

 

B (84–91%)

 

Competent or Satisfactory

Level of Performance

 

C (76–83%)

 

Poor, Failing or Unsatisfactory Level of Performance

F (0–75%)

         
 

Clinical Question

45 points

 

ALL elements present

1.       Problem is presented clearly.

2.       Significance of problem is described completely.

3.       PICOT question is presented.

4.       Purpose of paper is stated.

42–45 points

 

All but one element present

1.       Problem is presented clearly.

2.       Significance of problem is described completely.

3.       PICOT question is presented.

4.       Purpose of paper is stated.

38–41 points

 

ALL but two elements present

1.       Problem is presented clearly.

2.       Significance of problem is described completely.

3.       PICOT question is presented.

4.       Purpose of paper is stated.

34–37 points

 

Three or more elements missing

1.       Problem is presented clearly.

2.       Significance of problem is described completely.

3.       PICOT question is presented.

4.       Purpose of paper is stated.

0–33 points

 

Levels of Evidence

30 points

 

1.       Accurately identifies type of question being asked.

2.       Accurately identifies best type of evidence available to answer question being asked.

 

 

28–30 points

 

1.       Accurately identifies type of question being asked.

2.       Inaccurately identifies best type of evidence available to answer question being asked.

 

 

26–27 points

 

1.       Incompletely or inaccurately identifies type of question being asked.

2.       Incompletely or inaccurately identifies best type of evidence available to answer question being asked.

23–25 points

 

1.       Does not identify type of question being asked.

2.        Does not identify best type of evidence available to answer question being asked.

 

 

0–22 points

         

 

 

Format

30     points

 

1.       Grammar and mechanics are free of errors.

2.       Headings are free of errors and include all of the following.

a.        Clinical Question

b.       Level of Evidence

c.        Search Strategy

d.       Conclusion

3.       APA format is used without errors.

4.       Total length: Three to four pages, excluding references and title page.

 

28–30 points

 

1.       Grammar and mechanics have no more than one type of error.

2.       Headings are free of errors and include three of the following.

a.        Clinical Question

b.       Level of Evidence

c.        Search Strategy

d.       Conclusion

3.       APA format is used without errors.

4.       Total length: Three to four pages, excluding references and title page.

26–27 points

 

1.       Grammar and mechanics have no more than two types of errors.

2.       Headings are free of errors and include two of the following.

a.        Clinical Question

b.       Level of Evidence

c.        Search Strategy

d.       Conclusion

3.       APA format is used without errors.

4.       Total length: less than three or more than four pages, excluding references and title page.

23–25 points

 

1.       Grammar and mechanics have three or more types of errors.

2.       Headings have errors, are missing, or include just one of the following.

a.        Clinical Question

b.       Level of Evidence

c.        Search Strategy

d.       Conclusion

3.       APA format is used without errors.

4.       Total length: less than three or more than four pages, excluding references and title page.

0–22 points

         
 

Total Points Possible = 150 points

 

 

DIRECTIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA FOR FACULTY ASSIGNMENTS #3

 

Assignment

Criteria

Points % Description
Clinical Question 30 40 1.   Problem is described.  What is the focus of your group’s work?

2.   Significance of the problem is described. What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem?

3.   What was the identified PICOT question?

4.   Purpose of your paper. What will your paper do or describe?

This is similar to a problem statement. “The purpose of this paper is to . . .”

Levels of

Evidence

50 60 1.   What type of question are you asking (therapy, prognosis, meaning, etc.)?

2.  Questions criteria answered for the identified study

3.  Use Table 1.4 to identify the ratings systems for grading levels of  evidence

4. Use Table 1.5

5. Provided examples of why this is significant in practice

 

2.   What is the best type of evidence to be found to answer that question (e.g., RCT, cohort study, qualitative study)?

 

 

Format 45 50 1.   Correct grammar and spelling

2.   Use of headings for each section: Clinical Question, Level of

Evidence, Conclusion

3.   APA format (sixth ed.)

4.   Paper length: three to four pages

Total 125 100  

Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

Article Appraisal Sample: Guidelines for Critical Appraisal Paper/Faculty Assignments

Name

Institution

Date

There is a need to conduct a lot of studies on the significance of non-hormonal therapies for the management of vasomotor symptoms. It is evident that the use of progesterone and estrogen in the management of vasomotor symptoms has decreased following the health risks associated with the medication. Clinical hypnosis involves mind-body therapies that aim at facilitating the hypnotic state, coolness and promote the regulation of symptoms associated with vasomotor symptoms (Elkins et al., 2013). From the study conducted, it was evident that cancer survivors who received five weekly sessions experienced a significant reduction in the hot flashes relative to the baseline. It is important that effective therapies with high efficacy values are developed to replace therapies that cause many undesired side effects on the patients. Elkins et al conducted a research that confirmed that clinical hypnosis reduced the hot flashes significantly; however, the mechanism involved in the reduction is unknown and this calls for a further review.

Clinical Questions

There are various researches conducted on the effects of estrogen and progesterone in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms. The analysis of the researches helps in understanding the severity of the effect of estrogen and progesterone. Therefore, development of non-hormonal methods will help reduce the health problems associated with the use of hormonal therapies. The various meta-analysis and clinical reviews indicate that there is a need for additional clinical trials to provide enough evidence that supports the use of non-hormonal therapies in the management of vasomotor symptoms (Elkins et al., 2013). The analysis of the existing literature helps in assessing the existing gaps in the prior studies conducted on the same topic. The focus of the group work is to analyze existing pieces of literature on the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in the management of hot flashes and other symptoms associated with vasomotor. The scenario presents a problem experienced in the management of vasomotor symptoms; the hormonal therapies have been used for some time but it is evident that they have a low efficacy. The research mainly aimed at analyzing the appropriateness of the non-hormonal therapies such as clinical hypnosis in the treatment of hot flashes among other signs (Elkins et al., 2013). The identified PICOT question is that ‘does clinical hypnosis provides the best alternative to replace hormonal therapies in the management of hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms? The paper will involve the review of the health consequences associated with clinical hypnosis in the management of vasomotor symptoms in comparison to the hormonal therapies to come up with a conclusive response to the PICOT question.

Level of evidence

The question asked in this literature appraisalbelongs to the category of prognosis question. The authors mainly conducted a primary study alongside the analysis of other research conducted on the same topic to analyze the effectiveness of clinical hypnosis in the management of vasomotor symptoms. The research aimed at providing a therapeutic solution to the existing problems associated with the hormonal therapies. The goals of the literature review were to analyze studies that have been piloted between 1999 and 2012 on the effectiveness of clinical hypnosis to reduce the vasomotor symptoms including the hot flashes (Houser, 2015).

The study involved a single-blind study because only the researchers knew the interventions given in the study including both the control and exposed groups. It differs from double-blind where both the researcher and the sample population do not know the intervention given. There is high likely of experiencing observation biases in such study because the researcher already knows inference. There was also selection bias involved in the recruitment of participants based on the approach used to recruit the participants. The isolation of the effect of treatment was achieved through the structured attention control which was designed to correlate with the clinical interventions in therapy-exposure, the interpersonal exchange, and the therapeutic environment.

Random sampling was used to minimize the sampling error.  Selection bias is one of the possible threats of validity in the study and it results from the approach used in sample recruitment. The modified intervention involved the use of all randomized participants who gave their diaries. The diaries were sealed until all information was given by the participants and this was a strategy to compensate for the subjective data collected. In addition, the G-power was used to compensate for the anticipated effect sizes and sphericity.  The sample matching system ensures that the population sample represents the true picture of the population characteristics thus reducing the validity threats. The groups were given different treatments with the placebo group acting as the control in the study and this creates the differences between the group exclusive of the treatment.

The importance of reporting the studies based on time period to enables the audience to understand the progress and steps that have been conducted and how the gaps have been addressed with time. The readers can also analyze whether all areas of the research have been addressed fully and they can identify the existing areas that require further studies (Elkins et al., 2013). In addition, the main aim of the research is to provide sustainable solutions to the problems experienced in the society; therefore, the analysis of the research in time series helps the readers to know whether the studies met the ethical value in research. Good research will always remain relevant regardless of the time it has taken since the study was conducted (Houser, 2015).

The level of evidence used in the article basing on the evidence pyramid is a level III on the rating system. The level III includes evidence on studies conducted on intact groups; the study was conducted involved women aged 18 years and above who had not experienced menstrual periods for a period 12 months. The participants were also expected to have at least seven hot flashes per day. The other characteristics that qualify the study to level III evidence are the study involved a cohort study with an Ex-post-facto and causal-comparative studies (Elkins et al. 2013).

The author linked the literature review by making the conclusion in the research based on the other research conducted that supports the finding. The linking of the studies conducted in past with the present research helps the researcher to make a conclusive recommendation with a strong and convincing evidence as per this paper (Houser, 2015). The author also recommends that there is need to perform further analysis on the mechanism involved in the clinical hypnosis in managing hot flashes since there are no existing studies conducted on the same.

Conclusion

The research indicated that clinical hypnosis helps in reducing hot flashes experiences among women. On the other hand, there is a need to understand the mechanism involved in the therapy. The use of clinical hypnosis provides a viable solution to the problems associated with the use of hormonal therapies in the management of hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms. The research recommends that further studies should be conducted to explore efficient methods of disseminating the treatment (Houser, 2015). In addition, there is a need to explore other effective and safe alternative therapies apart from the clinical hypnosis. Clinical hypnosis proved to be effective in reducing hot flashed among the post-menopausal women.

Reference

Elkins, G. R., Fisher, W. I., Johnson, A. K., Carpenter, J. S., & Keith, T. Z. (2013). Clinical Hypnosis in the Treatment of Post-Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Menopause (New York, NY), 20(3).

Houser, J. (2015). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

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