Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment

Sample Question and Answer paper on Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance

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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance

The maintenance of normal volume and composition of extracellular and intracellular fluids is vital to life. List and briefly describe the kinds of homeostasis involved. (Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment)

The human system is composed of two fluid compartments including intraocular and extracellular. The extracellular fluid surrounds the cells while the intracellular fluids are in enclosed systems such as the cytoplasm in the fluid and the fluid. The intracellular fluids contain 60% of the total water in the body. The cells are semi-permeable that they can allow the movement of water in and out of the cells. In case the water in the cells reduces, inside the cell becomes hypertonic and thus draws much fluid from the extracellular fluid until an isotonic point is achieved. Similarly, a reduction in the extracellular fluid would make the component hypertonic; therefore, fluid will move from the cells to the extracellular tissues until an isotonic point is achieved (Martini, Nath & Bartholomew, 2017).

Three types of homeostasis are involved: fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance. Fluid balance means that the total quantity of body water remains almost constant and that the distribution between the intracellular fluid and extra cellular fluid are normal. Electrolyte balance implies the same thing for ions. Acid-base balance means that the pH of the extracellular fluid is maintained in the range of 7.35-7.45, and that gains or losses of hydrogen ion as a consequence of metabolism are followed by equivalent losses or gains so as to maintain constant buffer reserves.

Why does maintaining fluid balance in older people require a higher water intake than in a normal, healthy adult under age 40?

Older people are prone to dehydration due to physical inactivity and renal senescence. Rena system plays an important role in controlling the amount of water retained in the body. Older people lose a lot of water due to renal insufficiency and thus require more fluid intake.

Why does potassium concentration rise in patients with acidosis? What is this called? What effects does it have? (Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment).

Patients with acidosis are prone to hyperkalemia because acidosis causes potassium to move from the intracellular compartment to the extracellular compartment in the exchange of the hydrogen ions and thus reduces the acidosis. The process is called internal potassium balance (Martini, Nath & Bartholomew, 2017).

Saline solution is used to reverse hypotonic hydration. Are body cell membranes permeable to saline? Explain your response.

Saline contains 0.9% w/v sodium chloride and thus is administered to improve the salinity and isotonic state. The saline infusion increases the amount of sodium in the extracellular compartment and thus reducing the possibility of the fluid moving further into the cells. The body cell membranes are not permeable to saline and thus the movement of sodium ions occurs through symport or antiport (Garrett, 2017).

Explain the renin-angiotensin mechanism (Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment )

The renin-angiotensin mechanism is the process through which the kidney regulates blood pressure and volume by constricting the blood vessels through the production of renin enzyme that converts angiotensin hormone in the liver to angiotensin I which is then converted to angiotensin II that induces vascular constriction.

Explain how ADH compensates for blood that contains too many solutes.

The ADH hormone makes the kidney tubules to reabsorb more water until the normal solute concentration is achieved.

References

Garrett, B. M. (2017). Fluids and electrolytes: essentials for healthcare practice. Routledge.

Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., & Bartholomew, E. F. (2017). Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. Pearson.

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Balance Assignment

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