BAM 501 – Human Relations

BAM 501 – Human Relations

Thank you for reading this post, don't forget to subscribe!

925 North Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777

Text:

Author(s):

Publisher:

S tu

d y G

u id

e

The Human Side of Organizations

10th Edition, 2009

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-513974-5; ISBN-10: 0-13-513974-0

Michael Drafke

Pearson

03/09

BAM 501 Human Relations

Message From the President

Welcome to California Coast University. I hope you will find this course interesting and useful throughout your career. This course was designed to meet the unique needs of students like you who are both highly motivated and capable of completing a degree program through distance learning.

Our faculty and administration have been involved in distance learning for over almost forty years and understand the characteristics common to successful students in this unique educational environment.

This course was prepared by CCU faculty members who are not only outstanding educators but who have real world experience. They have prepared these guidelines to help you successfully complete your educational goals and to get the most from your distance learning experience.

Again, we hope that you will find this course both helpful and motivating. We send our best wishes as you work toward the completion of your course.

Sincerely,

Thomas M. Neal President

Human Relations

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotation in review. Copyright © 2012 by California Coast University

Syllabus

vii

Human Relations

Course Number BAM 501

Course Title Human Relations

Catalog Description Business and organizational leaders repeatedly stress the need for increased worker education and preparedness in communication, interpersonal skills, teamwork, leadership, ethics, and the ability to work well with other words. This course reviews the basics of human relations, the organizational framework, organizational activity and strategies for improving organizational behavior and performance.

Units of Credit 3 Units of Credit

Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

• Explain why people work, and describe the basic philosophy associated with work.

• Explain the purpose of the study of organizational behavior.

• Differentiate between formal and informal communications.

• Describe methods to improve communication.

• Identify the features and functions of an organization chart.

• Describe management’s role in an organization.

• Explain the importance of understanding the concepts of needs and motivation.

• Explain the importance of anticipating the need for change.

• Explain the relationship between frustration and stress.

Learning Resources Textbook: Human Relations 10th Edition, 2009 Michael Drafke Pearson

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-513974-5 ISBN-10: 0-13-513974-0

All course examinations are based on the contents of the textbook required for this course. To successfully complete the examinations, you will need the textbook. You may rent the textbook from our Rental Library or you may purchase the textbook from another source.

The Study Guide

The Study Guide was designed to help you further understand the material in the textbook and master the course content. Each Study Guide chapter corresponds to a chapter in the textbook.

Syllabus

viii

Human Relations

Additional Readings and Online Resources To help you to further understand this subject material, additional readings and online resources related to this course are listed in this syllabus.

The Library Information and Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN) The Library Information and Resources Network (LIRN) is an online library resource that provides access to multiple research databases.

CCU doctoral candidates who enrolled in their program after February 1, 2010 receive complimentary access to LIRN.

If you are a current student enrolled in another CCU program and wish to request access to LIRN, you may do so for a one-time fee of $25. Please contact the CCU Library to fill out a Request for Online Library Resources form and submit it, with payment, to the University. You will be emailed a confidential identification number to use for the remainder of your studies at CCU.

Supplementary Materials

Unit Examination Answer Sheets* Final Examination Scheduling Form

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students will not receive unit exam answer sheets. Unit Examinations for these programs require written responses.

Your Course Grade

Your grades on course examinations are determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University uses the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

Your grade in this course will be based on the number of points you earn. Grades are based on the percentage of points you earned out of a total of 500 points:

Syllabus

ix

Human Relations

Four Unit Examinations

100 points each 400 points total 80% of your grade

Final Examination

100 points 100 points total 20% of your grade

Mastering the Course Content

In order to successfully complete this course, we recommend that you do the following before beginning:

• Be sure that you have the correct edition of the course textbook. Check the ISBN number of your textbook with the ISBN number listed on the cover page of this Study Guide.

• Review the table of contents at the end of this syllabus. You will only be responsible for the chapters in the textbook that are listed in the table of contents.

Each Study Guide contains several components selected and developed by the faculty to help you master the content of the course. Each chapter in the Study Guide corresponds to a chapter in the textbook. Study Guides vary depending on the course, but most will include:

Learning Objectives Overviews Self Tests Summaries Key Terms Critical Analysis Questions (Master and Doctoral students only)

The most efficient way to complete this course is to read the materials in both the Study Guide and textbook in the sequence in which it appears, generally from beginning to end.

Read the Overviews and Summaries

Before reading a chapter of your textbook, review the corresponding Learning Objectives, Overview, Key Terms and Summary sections in the Study Guide. These were prepared to give you an overview of the content to be learned.

Review the Self Test

After you have reviewed the Study Guide summaries, look at the items on the Self Test. As you identify your areas of relative strength and weakness, you will become more aware of the material you will need to learn in greater depth.

Syllabus

x

Human Relations

Review the Critical Analysis (Master and Doctoral students only) The Critical Analysis questions are designed to help you gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for the course subject matter. This section will encourage you to give additional thought to the topics discussed in the chapter by presenting vignettes or cases with real world relevance.

Read and Review the Chapter

Once you have the scope and organization of the chapter in mind, turn to the corresponding chapter in the text and read the material carefully. Keep the Learning Objectives, Self Test and/or Critical Analysis questions in mind as you read.

Highlight important concepts and information in your Study Guide and write notes in the Study Guide margins as you read. These notes will help you study for the Unit and Final Examinations.

Check Your Mastery of Each Chapter

When you feel that you have mastered the concepts presented in the chapter, complete the Study Guide Self Test and/or Critical Analysis questions without referring to the textbook or your notes. Correct your Self Test and review each Critical Analysis response using the Answer Key and Solutions Guide provided in the Study Guide. Your results will help you identify any areas you need to review.

Unit Examinations

Each course contains four Unit Examinations and a Final Examination. Unit Examinations usually consist of 25 objective (multiple choice or true/false) test questions as well as comprehensive writing assignments selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter. For Master of Education and Doctor of Education students, Unit Examinations consist of Written Assignments only. Unit Examinations may be found approximately every four to six chapters throughout your Study Guide. Unit Examinations are open-book, do not require a proctor, and are not timed. This will allow you to proceed at your own pace.

It is recommended that you check your answers against the material in your textbook for accuracy.

Syllabus

xi

Human Relations

Written Assignments

Each Unit Examination includes a written component. This assignment may be in the form of written questions or case study problems. The written assignment affords the student an opportunity to demonstrate a level of subject mastery beyond the objective Unit Examinations, which reflects his/her ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply his/her knowledge. The written assignment materials are found immediately following each Unit Examination.

Written Assignment Requirements

• Always include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated). Be sure to keep a copy for your records.

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• All responses must be typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size for ease of reading and grading.

• All online responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document file only.

Written assignments are judged on the quality of the response in regard to the question. Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

• Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages.

• Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages.

• Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Plagiarism consists of taking and using the ideas, writings or inventions of another, without giving credit to that person and presenting it as one’s own. This is an offense that the University takes very serious. An example of a correctly prepared written response may be found by visiting the Coast Connection student portal.

Syllabus

xii

Human Relations

Citation Styles

The majority of your response should be your own original writing based on what you have learned from the textbook. However, if you choose to use outside material to answer a writing assignment question, be sure to provide a reference (or citation) for the material. The following points are designed to help you understand how to provide proper references for your work:

• References are listed in two places.

• The first reference is briefly listed within your answer. This includes identifying information that directs the reader to your List of References at the end of your Written Assignment.

• The second reference is at the end of your work in the List of References section.

• All references cited should provide enough identifying information so that the reader can access the original material.

For more detailed information on the proper use of citations, please refer to the CCU Student Handbook located on the Coast Connection student portal.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations by Mail

Send your completed Unit Examination along with any written assignments to the following mailing address:

California Coast University Testing Department 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701

Submitting Your Unit Examinations via the Internet

Students may access the online testing features via the Coast Connection student portal. Multiple choice Unit Examinations may be completed and submitted online. After logging in to your online account at www.calcoast-online.com, select the Testing link, then select Complete Unit Exam. It is recommended that you complete the Unit Examinations on the hard copy answer sheet first, then transfer the answers to the online answer sheet.

Syllabus

xiii

Human Relations

The written assignments for each Unit Examination may be submitted online as well. After accessing the student portal, choose the Writing Assignment link and then select Writing Assignment Submission. If you will be submitting multiple Word documents, please upload and submit them one at a time.

Repeating Examinations

After a Unit Examination grade has been posted, students have the option of repeating the exam to improve their grade*. Each Unit Examination may only be repeated once.

Requests to retake a Unit Examination will only be honored if the Final Exam has NOT been sent.

Students may retake one Unit Examination per course, free of charge. The cost for each additional, repeated exam will be $90. Payment must be paid in full to the Accounting Department prior to repeating unit exams.

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students are not eligible to retake Unit Exams. If you would like to improve your grade, you may pay the current cost of tuition to retake the course.

Final Examination

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final Examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A Final Exam Scheduling Form is located on the last page of this Study Guide. Please fill out all required fields and mail it to the University.

If you would like to request a Final Exam online, log in to your student account at www.calcoast-online.com and choose the Testing link, then select Final Exam Scheduling.

Final Exams will only be sent if you have completed all four Unit Examinations and submitted all four Writing Assignments.

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the University. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

Syllabus

xiv

Human Relations

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on the Testing tab and then choose either Proctored Final or Non-Proctored Final. If your Final Exam was sent to your proctor, then he or she will have to enter a password that was issued to them on the Proctor Instruction Sheet for the course.

Online Final Exam submissions must be completed in one session; you cannot save answers and go back to your exam later. We recommend that you complete your Final Exam on paper first, then transfer the answers to your online answer sheet.

Proctors

The University requires that all Final Examinations except Associate and Bachelors level elective courses be completed under the supervision of a Proctor.

The purpose of the proctored Final Examination is to verify that you are, in fact, the person who is enrolled in the course of study. It is also to verify that you are completing the Final Examination without the aid of any outside assistance. During the proctored Final Examination, you may use your textbook and any notes you have taken during the completion of your Unit Examinations. Your designated Proctor will verify your identity and that you have completed the Final Examination without any outside assistance. A Proctor can be anyone EXCEPT an immediate family member, someone who resides with you or a current/former CCU student.

Receiving Your Examination Grades

After your examinations are scored, a grade report will be mailed to you or you may arrange to have your grade e-mailed to you. You may also check your grades on the Coast Connection student portal. Grades are normally posted and available for review within 5 business days.

Most students receive their grades by regular mail within two weeks after the University receives their examination.

If you do not receive a grade report within two weeks, please contact the Testing Department and a duplicate grade report will be sent to you.

Your Overall Grade Point Average (G.P.A.)

In addition to receiving a passing grade for each course, all students must maintain a required overall G.P.A. in order to graduate. Undergraduate students need an overall G.P.A. of 2.0 (C) on a 4.0 scale. Graduate and Doctoral students need an overall G.P.A. of 3.0 (B) on a 4.0 scale.

Syllabus

xv

Human Relations

A = 4 grade points B = 3 grade points C = 2 grade points D = 1 grade point F = 0 grade points

Students who do not meet the overall G.P.A. requirement by the end of their program must pay the current cost of tuition to repeat courses until they improve their overall G.P.A.

Overall course grades of “F” will be displayed on your Degree Plan and count as 0 units completed. You must pay to retake these courses.

Doctor of Education students must repeat any courses in which the overall course grade is a “D” or “F”.

Be sure to keep a copy of all work you submit to the University.

Syllabus

xvi

Human Relations

If you have any questions about how to proceed through the course or regarding any California Coast University policies and procedures, the easiest way to get help is to e-mail or phone the University.

University office hours are Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Pacific Standard Time.

California Coast University

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, California 92701 Phone: (714) 547-9625 • Fax: (714) 547-5777

Test Answer Sheet Fax Line: (714) 547-1451

e-mail: testing@calcoast.edu

Don’t forget: You are not alone! We are here to help you achieve your dream!

BA M

50 1

Syllabus

xvii

Human Relations

Learning Objectives

The learning objectives for this course are listed below:

Chapter 1: Work and Its Place in Life

1) Examine the purpose of the study of organizational behavior. 2) Survey current trends in organizational behavior. 3) Differentiate between work and play. 4) Assess why people work, and describe the basic philosophy associated with work. 5) Analyze employer theories of the meaning of work. 6) Explain how the elements in the physical work environment affect workers. 7) Describe and incorporate the elements of the mental work environment. 8) Compare individual and organizational needs.

Chapter 2: Perception and Problem Solving

1) Distinguish between a fact and an inference. 2) Predict the factors that influence what a person sees in a given situation. 3) Chart and describe at least five possible fallacies in logical reasoning. 4) Diagram the nine-step system for problem solving and describe each step. 5) Determine the nature of intuition in the decision-making process. 6) Examine the four pitfalls to effective decision making. 7) Investigate how creativity can aid the problem-solving process.

Chapter 3: Primary Communications

1) Rate and explain the five message channels. 2) Value the role words play in communicating. 3) Survey and give examples of nonverbal communications. 4) Describe, give examples of, and explain the role of the eight types of non-verbal symbols. 5) Compare and contrast formal and informal communications. 6) Investigate differences between male and female communications.

Chapter 4: Improving Communications and Managing Conflict

1) Determine, describe, and give examples of the 14 barriers to communication. 2) Assess the importance of listening and identify methods to improve listening. 3) Evaluate methods to break down communication barriers. 4) Develop methods to improve communication. 5) Compare and contrast positive and negative conflicts. 6) Survey eight methods for managing conflict.

Syllabus

xviii

Human Relations

Chapter 5: Ethics and Etiquette

1) Assess the advantages and disadvantages of casual business attire. 2) Classify the differences between ethics and etiquette. 3) Discover and explain ethical challenges to business. 4) Evaluate guidelines related to employing socially responsible programs. 5) Determine meeting etiquette. 6) Describe the etiquette of business dining, including that for ordering, discussing business, using utensils, host and guest etiquette, and proper manners. 7) Recommend the actions which can be taken when others break the rules of etiquette.

Chapter 6: Jobs, From Design to Appraisal

1) Determine the elements which comprise a job. 2) Differentiate employment-at-will from job contracts. 3) Predict and describe several job trends. 4) Recommend and create strategies for finding a job. 5) Measure advantages and disadvantages of specialization. 6) Scrutinize a job analysis. 7) Evaluate the suggestions for conducting and participating in interviews. 8) Measure and create appraisal responses.

Chapter 7: Formal Organizations: How People Organize

1) Measure the hierarchical structure principle. 2) Discover the unity of command principle. 3) Differentiate between line and staff departments. 4) Evaluate the division of labor principle as it applies to formal organizations. 5) Distinguish the features and functions of an organization chart. 6) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of functional, geographic, customer, product, matrix, horizontal, learning, virtual, and developing organizational structures. 7) Determine the reasons for using organizational structures.

Chapter 8: Understanding Management

1) Classify management’s role in an organization. 2) Distinguish and define the four functions of management. 3) Examine the types of decisions managers make. 4) Determine management principles and describe their effect on the working environment. 5) Evaluate the characteristics of classical management. 6) Compare and contrast between good management and poor management. 7) Determine the worker’s role in an organization. 8) Recommend strategies for coping with being managed.

Syllabus

xix

Human Relations

Chapter 9:Small Groups and the Informal Organization

1) Compare the purpose and nature of formal and informal groups. 2) Detect group member characteristics. 3) Classify the types of group member behavior associated with small groups. 4) Discover how informal groups utilize the grapevine. 5) Evaluate the advantages and deficiencies of group decision making. 6) Rate, describe, and differentiate between two group-formation models. 7) Recommend and describe methods for maximizing team efforts.

Chapter 10: Individuals and Self-Management

1) Formulate why a certain degree of conformity among organizational members is desirable. 2) Analyze conformity as it relates to privacy, company resources, off-the-job activities, workplace affairs, attire, and smoking. 3) Determine the three general areas in which many employers believe that they have the “right to know”. 4) Predict some typical challenges that individuals may have with themselves in organizations. 5) Assess the nature and purpose of organizational politics. 6) Survey, define, and explain the concepts and components of self-management. 7) Evaluate, define, and explain time-management techniques.

Chapter 11: Motivation and Morale

1) Question the importance of understanding the concepts of needs and motivation. 2) Determine the nature of four common learned needs. 3) Compare and contrast the motivational theories of Maslow, Alderfer, and Herzberg. 4) Scrutinize expectancy theory. 5) Distinguish how time and importance affect motivation. 6) Analyze the special role money plays in motivating people. 7) Detect and describe the principal factors that influence morale. 8) Recommend the various methods for measuring or evaluating morale.

Chapter 12: Job Satisfaction and the Quality of Work Life

1) Survey and describe quality of work life. 2) Distinguish and explain the common features of quality of work life. 3) Evaluate and describe the 14 factors that can impact and improve the quality of work life. 4) Explain the effects the work and social environments can have on the quality of work life. 5) Recommend innovative ways to work. 6) Determine work trends that can affect the quality of work life. 7) Rate and explain the factors affecting job satisfaction.

Syllabus

xx

Human Relations

Chapter 13: The Dynamics of Change

1) Assess the importance of anticipating the need for change. 2) Distinguish the major causes of employee resistance to change. 3) Detect how resistance to change is shown. 4) Appraise the three-step process for change. 5) Discover the benefits of participating in change. 6) Determine the methods for accomplishing change. 7) Recommend six methods for coping with change.

Chapter 14: Leadership

1) Discover leadership. 2) Compare and contrast authority, responsibility, and accountability. 3) Distinguish where power comes from. 4) Differentiate between leadership and management. 5) Recommend traits and behavior sets of leaders. 6) Define and differentiate between transformation and contingency leadership methods. 7) Evaluate Theory X and Theory Y leaders. 8) Survey the major styles of leadership. 9) Determine the skills that are fundamental for effective management.

Chapter 15: Stress

1) Investigate stress and stressors. 2) Predict and define causes of stress. 3) Assess and explain the reactions to work-related distress. 4) Diagram and explain the three stages of stress. 5) Measure the relationship between frustration and stress. 6) Investigate burnout and explain its causes and cures. 7) Propose recommendations for general stress management. 8) Recommend methods for managing career-related stress.

Chapter 16: Challenges and Opportunities

1) Recognize the increased concern of organizations for global organizational behavior issues. 2) Discover the need to understand differences in customs among different cultures and list examples of variations in customs. 3) Assess the importance of multicultural issues to organizations. 4) Differentiate between prejudice and discrimination. 5) Detect and list examples of discrimination laws. 6) Examine the challenges facing women in today’s workplace. 7) Inspect the problems disabled workers face. 8) Evaluate laws affecting disabled workers.

Table of Contents

xxi

Human Relations

Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-xxvi

Unit One Chapter 1: Work and Its Place in Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-09

Chapter 2: Perception and Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20

Chapter 3: Primary Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-30

Chapter 4: : Improving Communications and Managing Conflict. . . . . . . . 31-40

Unit 1 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Unit 1 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-47

Unit 1 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-49

Unit Two

Chapter 5: Ethics and Etiquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-59

Chapter 6: Jobs, From Design to Appraisal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-69

Chapter 7: Formal Organizations: How People Organize . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-79

Chapter 8: Understanding Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-89

Unit 2 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Unit 2 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-96

Unit 2 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-98

Unit Three

Chapter 9: Small Groups and the Informal Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-108

Chapter 10: Individuals and Self-Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109-118

Chapter 11: Motivation and Morale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119-128

Chapter 12: Job Satisfaction and the Quality of Work Life . . . . . . . . . . . 129-138

Unit 3 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Unit 3 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-145

Unit 3 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146-147

Unit Four Chapter 13: The Dynamics of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-157

Chapter 14: Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158-167

Chapter 15: Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168-177

Chapter 15: Challenges and Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178-187

Table of Contents

xxii

Human Relations

Unit 4 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Unit 4 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189-193

Unit 4 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194-195

Final Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Final Examination Scheduling Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Objectives

1

Human Relations

Chapter Number One Work and Its Place in Life

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Examine the purpose of the study of organizational behavior.

2. Survey current trends in organizational behavior.

3. Differentiate between work and play.

4. Assess why people work, and describe the basic philosophy associated with work.

5. Analyze employer theories of the meaning of work.

6. Explain how the elements of the physical work environment affect workers

7. Describe and incorporate the elements of the mental work environ- ment.

8. Compare individual and organizational needs.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 3-32 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

2

Human Relations

This chapter introduces you to the study of organizational behavior, its history, and current trends. We will also explore the concept of work and its role in our daily lives, and begin to see the relationships that emerge within the organization among individuals, coworkers, management, and the work environment itself. All of these parts are instrumental compo- nents that impact an organization as it works towards accomplishing its goals.

Key Terms

3

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Organizational Behavior:

Physical Work Environment:

Work:

Authority Level:

Managerial Style:

Absenteeism:

Turnover:

Summary

4

Human Relations

As individuals we apply for jobs and take on the role of employee in the workplace. We also need to recognize that as employees we are also key resources for the organiza- tion within which we work. As we work to help the organization meet its goals, we are an individual interacting with other employees who become our coworkers and our managers. Individuals form a group of people working in organizations and must quickly recognize their importance within the mental and physical organizational work environment.

Organizational Behavior or OB is the study of the behavior of people and their relation- ships in organizations for the purpose of attempting to match their personal needs and objectives with the overall needs and objectives of the organization. OB is often called Human Relations or Interpersonal & Organizational Psychology.

While OB is a multidisciplinary field with application of skills from psychology, sociol- ogy, and social anthropology, it is also concerned with the “why” of individuals and their groups and what can be done to anticipate behaviors and cope with or prevent the re- sponses that come from our organizational actions. A major focus for studying OB is on developing human relations skills to better analyze behavior in our workplaces and thus understand, anticipate, cope with, and improve behavior in our organizations.

Organizations exist when two or more people work together on accomplishing mutual goals and thus have mutual interest in those goals. This means OB applies to all sizes of com- panies and not just Fortune 500 organizations and corporations. When these two or more people do come together to work, communication and coordination are essential. Conflicts inevitably will arise. OB does not offer clear-cut, cookie cutter solutions to organizational problems and con- flicts within the workplace, but OB does assist us in understanding, anticipating, and cop- ing with others in our work environment.

A key to understanding OB is in the answer to why else we work. Going to work is also con- sidered the natural thing to do. We become a certain age, go to school, get a degree, and go to work. What is often interesting is that many people, managers included, have not thought about what OB is, nor taken the time and energy to understand it. This may very well be a reason many managers haven’t considered the importance the human element has on productivity and morale in the workplace. The author provides a meaningful way of differentiating between work and play in the text. He proposes three factors be examined in distinguishing between the two: • Purpose of the task • Attitude of the person performing the task • Reward(s) received by the person performing the task

The working environment consists of two main elements: • The physical work environment • The mental work environment These two elements combine to affect everyone within the workplace, though each person is impacted differently because your individual behavior influences how others treat you.

The physical work environment includes the lighting, noise, temperature and humidity, ventilation, color and décor, layout, equipment, supplies, comfort, and security in the workplace. A recent addition to factors impacting the physical work environment includes

Summary

5

Human Relations

“sick” buildings. A poor physical environment can decrease efficiency, cause fatigue, decrease morale and productivity, cause lost time, and increase absenteeism and turnover. Oftentimes individuals don’t notice these elements during their hiring process and not until they have been on the job for a period of time.

The mental work environment is also known as the psychological work environment. The mental work environment is a collected perception of four factors: • Work – tasks that make up the job • Managerial Style – methods used by management in planning, organizing, lead- ing, and controlling the organization • Influences of Coworkers – attitudes, beliefs, and actions of those individuals work- ing with you • You – attitudes, personality, values, and perceptions

Assumptions coworkers and managers make concerning work greatly affects the degree of how the individual worker will be affected by coworkers. Throughout the text, the influ- ence of coworkers is discussed. The important point for the worker is to try to find a match between what they desire in coworkers and what is provided.

The mental and physical work environments are interrelated. Coworkers affect you as an individual worker and the mental environment just as you affect coworkers and the mental environment. Individuals bring their personal needs to the workplace, and these personal needs can have significant effects on the organization. Our individual needs strongly influ- ence our motivation and attitude toward our work. Organizations provide a structure, poli- cies, and guidelines for employees to follow. This structure has a purpose, though it may or may not be compatible with individual worker’s needs.

Self Test

6

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1)The physical work environment consists of which elements?

A) The employee’s aggregate perceptions of the work, managerial style, and co- worker influences. B) The building, layout, equipment, décor, and other structural elements in the workplace. C) The coworkers and managers in the workplace. D) The policies, pay, benefits, and rewards received in the workplace.

2) The mental work environment includes which elements?

A) The stress forces that accompany work performance B) The managerial systems and policies impact on behavior of the workforce. C) The negative stress factors present in a particular physical work environment D) The employee’s aggregate perceptions of the work, managerial style, and coworker influences.

3) Morgan has autonomy in her job. Which description defines the benefit she experiences from this autonomy?

A) The fixing of close, undivided attention by her manager on her task comple- tion. B) The power or ability she has to command organizational resources. C) The precision or exactness she needs to attain when completing each task. D) The ability she has to perform her job independently with minimal supervi- sion.

4) Employees in a workplace demonstrate a/an ________ at work about their views of the job and the organization

A) personality B) value C) skill D) attitude

5) Which term refers to the number of employees voluntarily quitting their jobs in a given period of time?

A) Turnover B) Absenteeism C) Downsizing D) Tardiness

Self Test

7

Human Relations

6) The work pace involved in an employee’s job is best described as which of the following?

A) The length of time needed to complete one task. B) The maximum speed the fastest worker can perform a task flawlessly. C) The time required to perform a job task and the time between tasks. D) The diversity or differences in the speed of work.

7) The work pace variety involved in an employee’s job is best described as which of the following?

A) The maximum speed the fastest worker can perform a task flawlessly. B) The length of time needed to complete one task. C) The diversity or differences in the speed of work. D) The time required to perform a job task and the time between tasks.

8) What does concentration on a work task entail?

A) How difficult the work task is to perform. B) The fixing of close, undivided attention on the work task. C) How accountable someone is for obtaining results from their work tasks. D) The precision or exactness needed to complete the work task

9) The amount of responsibility an employee has in their job is evident through ________.

A) the difficulty of the tasks the employee performs in their job B) the accountability the employee has for obtaining results in their job tasks C) the precision or exactness needed by the employee when completing their job tasks D) the fixing of close, undivided attention on the employee as they perform their job

10) Which of the following would be a comfortable temperature range for the indoor workplace?

A) 65-68 degrees B) 65-77 degrees C) 65-76 degrees D) 65-83 degrees

Answer Keys

8

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Organizational Behavior: is the study of the behavior of people and their relationships in organizations for the purpose of attempting to match their personal needs and objectives with the overall needs and objectives of the organization.

Physical Work Environment: includes the lighting, noise, temperature and humidity, ven- tilation, color and décor, layout, equipment, supplies, comfort, and security in the work- place.

Work: is a purposeful activity having external and internal rewards that is viewed as work by the person performing the activity. Authority Level: Authority means a person has been given the power or the ability to com- mand resources (human, financial, material, and informational) in order to achieve results. Managerial Style: The philosophy or managerial style or methods managers use in running the organization greatly affects the work environment.

Absenteeism: is the failure of an employee to report to work when scheduled and often becomes a habitual act.

Turnover: is typically discussed in terms of labor turnover and is a measurement of the ratio of the number of employees hired to the number of employees who have left employment in a given period of time.

Answer Keys

9

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)B 2)D 3)D 4)D 5)A 6)C 7)C 8)B 9)B 10)B

Objectives

10

Human Relations

Chapter Number Two Perception and Problem Solving

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Differentiate between a fact and an inference

2. Predict the factors that influence what a person sees in a given situa- tion.

3. Chart and describe at least five possible fallacies in logical reasoning.

4. Diagram the nine-step system for problem solving and describe each step.

5. Determine the nature of intuition in the decision-making process.

6. Examine the four pitfalls to effective decision making.

7. Investigate how creativity can aid the problem-solving process.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 35-71 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

11

Human Relations

This chapter examines perception and decision making, aspects of the mental work envi- ronment. The main goals include discussing how your view of the world and your reasoning processes can affect your perception of reality. Major applications of your reasoning abili- ties, creativity, and decision making will be covered, along with a model for making more rational decisions.

Key Terms

12

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Mental Set:

Perceptual Filters:

Facts:

Inference:

Attitudes:

Beliefs:

Current Mental State:

Problem:

Problem Recognition:

Summary

13

Human Relations

The focus of the chapter is on understanding how our personal views and reasoning processes affect our perception of reality. Studying perception is helpful in understand- ing how we perceive organizational situations and our view of reality in the organization. Different individuals perceive the same situation dissimilarly. Our human tendency is to believe that what we see is what is real – the truth.

We might not see an entire situation immediately at the start. In other words, accurate perceptions take efforts and time. What amount of effort you put forth into seeing an entire situation is a reflection of your view of reality.

Facts are what we all agree to be true. Society agrees it to be true – but beware what is thought to be true really can be false! Inference is what we know or assume to be true. Opinions are what we have confidence in but no positive knowledge or proof to substanti- ate

Even when we are 100 percent certain, we need to leave room for doubt. In today’s work- places, there is not an endless amount of time to search for facts – The instinct is to at- tempt to make certainties out of probabilities. Therefore, leave room for error and be aware of the potential need to alter your approach as new “facts” are discovered.

Our mental state is an influence on our perceptions and something that needs to be taken a closer look at when working towards understanding perceptions and the role they play in behavior in organizations. Our mental state includes, attitudes, beliefs and current mental state. All three of these forces and factors impact our perceptions – and thus our behav- ioral choices.

We have looked at influencers on our perceptions, as well as probabilities and certain- ties and now we must look at the relationship between our perceptions and our decision- making processes. To begin with we must identify potential fallacies or roadblocks that may get in the way. Perceptions and reasoning are intimately related to problem solving and decision making. How we perceive a situation affects and influences whether we see the problem as requiring a solution and our proposed solution to a problem. Our reasoning approach even impacts on our problem solving.

A problem is an unresolved question that requires a solution. When we encounter a prob- lem, we have the choice of accepting it, rejecting it, or questioning it. However, what is key is that we accept, reject, or question the right situation. Also key is working to get to the root of the problem so as to get down to its original cause. We must also work to en- sure we are not really working with what is a solution looking for a problem – as in having an idea we want to see used even when the idea is not the end result of a problem solving effort.

Decision making is done when a solution needs to be identified or crafted. The nine-step system discussed in the text is widely used as a decision-making procedure. The nine-step model is considered to be a logical-rational decision making tool. One needs to consider, however, that not all individuals have the same sense or level of rationality. This means as individuals our decisions may be “bounded” based not only on perceptions but also on our knowledge, experiences, etc. even when utilizing a rational and logical approach to making decisions.

Summary

14

Human Relations

Understanding perceptions is key to developing a greater sensitivity toward their impact on organizational problems and behavior in our workplaces. The reality is we do not ”see” an accurate or complete picture of situations immediately. Having this awareness and being able to apply perceptual concepts strengthens our ability to see reality.

Self Test

15

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) George made an inference about a situation occurring in his workplace. In doing so, how did he make his decision?

A) He reached a conclusion from information he knew or assumed to be true. B) He made his decision instantly without considering the benefit of fact or experience. C) He made his decision based on a conclusion that society as a whole agrees is true. D) He reached a conclusion based on his confidence which has not been sub stantiated by positive knowledge or proof..

2) ________ is the act of attributing our own traits, faults, or motives onto oth- ers?

A) Projection B) Two-valued reasoning C) Halo effect D) Inference

3) Chris made a snap judgment about why Charlie was late for work today. On what basis did Chris make his decision?

A) He made his decision based on what everyone in the workplace agreed was true. B) He made his decision using information he knew or assumed to be true. C) He made his decision using a belief or conclusion he held with confidence but was not substantiated with any proof. D) He made his decision through an instant evaluation determined without the benefit of any fact or experience.

4) Which of the following statements best describes the fallacy of composition?

A) The assumption that when one event precedes another, the first caused the second. B) The assumption that what is true of a part is true also of the whole. C) The ignoring or distorting of reality to hold onto assumptions. D) The assumption that what is true for the whole is true for each of the parts.

5) Which of the following statements best describes the fallacy of wishing it were so?

A) The assumption that when one event precedes another, the first caused the second. B) The assumption that what is true of a part is true also of the whole. C) The assumption that what is true for the whole is true for each of the parts. D) The ignoring or distorting of reality to hold onto assumptions.

Self Test

16

Human Relations

6) Jerry is 26 years old but looks 19. He has a B.S. degree in Computer Sci- ence and four years experience designing websites for successful e-Commerce businesses. He is being interviewed for the Web Designer position with a large retailer who currently does not have an e-Commerce site. The three interviewers are all Senior Brand Managers with virtually no web or e-Com- merce experience or education. After the interview, one of the managers leaned over to the other two and says, “I’ve got pencils older than that kid! We can’t hire him, the ink isn’t even dry in his high school yearbook!” One of the other two laughed and nodded her head in agreement. The third man- ager looked doubtful but the other two kept talking until he caved in and agreed. Which of these are at work here?

1. Peer Pressure 2. Recency 3. Halo Effect 4. Snap Judgment 5. Facts

A) 1 and 4 B) 5 C) 1 and 2 D) 2, 3, and 4

7) His suit is purple!!! That is all John could think about. The salesman talk- ing to him was wearing a purple suit. When the salesman left, John thought, “If the salesperson looks like that, the whole company must dress like goofs!!” What type of reasoning is John using here?

A) Fallacy of Division B) Two-Valued Reasoning C) Logic D) Fallacy of Composition

8) George believes women do not belong in the workplace. When Maureen ap- plied for a job in his department, he knew just from looking at the name on her resume that she was not qualified for the job. Which determinant of per- ception is at play in this example?

A) Halo Effect B) Hereditary C) Peer Pressure D) Snap Judgment

9) In the decision-making model outlined in your textbook, what is the first step in making a decision?

A) Option Implementation B) Objective Setting

Self Test

17

Human Relations

C) Problem Definition D) Problem Recognition

10) Walt manages a quality control department for his firm. Unfortunately his department has a high level of turnover, and therefore he finds himself con- stantly involved in the process of interviewing for new employees. It could be said he is suffering from which pitfall to effective decision making?

A) Making unnecessary decisions B) Procrastination C) Putting out the same fire D) Not considering the costs

Answer Keys

18

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Mental Set: perceiving what we want, or are set to see, regardless of reality.

Perceptual Filters: our attitudes decide for us what parts of our environment we allow our brains to interpret and what parts are filtered out.

Facts: what we all agree to be true.

Inference: what we know or assume to be true.

Attitudes: are descriptive thoughts based on knowledge, opinion, or faith. They contain, therefore, a cognitive component.

Beliefs: are thoughts based on emotion and therefore may be irrational – and a heavy influence on our perceptions and thus behavioral actions.

Current Mental State: refers to our moods, stress, and pressures.

Problem: is an unresolved question that requires a solution.

Problem Recognition: a proactive approach that tries to identify problems before they become large, rather than waiting to react to problems that are finally large enough to become self-evident.

Answer Keys

19

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)A 2)A 3)D 4)B 5)D 6)A 7)D 8)D 9)D 10)C

Notes

20

Human Relations

Objectives

21

Human Relations

Chapter Number Three Primary Communications

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Rate and explain the five message channels.

2. Value the role words play in communicating.

3. Survey and give examples of nonverbal communications.

4. Describe, give examples of, and explain the role of the eight types of nonverbal symbols.

5. Compare and contrast formal and informal communications.

6. Investigate between male and female communications.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 73-110 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

22

Human Relations

The goal of this chapter is to introduce you to the most important component of organiza- tions — communication. Although you have been communicating all of your life, organi- zational communication can be different from that with which you are familiar. And, like communication, the understanding of communication is a two-way street. You need to understand organizational communication in order to fully comprehend the messages of others and to ensure that you send the message you intended (and not accidentally send the wrong message).

Key Terms

23

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Communication:

Feedback:

Nonverbal Communication:

Third-party communication:

Formal Communication:

Informal Communication:

Filtering:

Summary

24

Human Relations

Understanding effective communications and the elements of effective communications in our organizations is key so that we are fully comprehending the messages being sent to use from others and so that we are assured the messages we send and received are the messages we intended. The fact is clear – organizations cannot function effectively when communication skills of organizational members are lacking.

Communication is defined as “the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information by speech, signals, writing, or behavior between a sender or receiver”. What is essential for communication to be considered effective is understanding between what the sender’s message was intended to “say” and what the receiver “understood”.

Four essential ingredients are necessary for understanding and thus effective communica- tion to take place: • Sender • Message • Receiver – Listener • Feedback

Communication is two-way – meaning sent between two individuals with feedback indicat- ing how effectively you have communicated. It is through this feedback that the sender of the message learns the response to their message from the receiver. Senders encode the message by selecting the words to use, the tone, and any nonverbal communication sym- bols. Receivers decode (translate) the message and use feedback to respond to the sender. As the decoding is completed, it is important to remember the key role the receiver’s inter- pretation of the message plays in achieving effective communications.

Nonverbal communication makes up the majority of our communication – 55%; Tone fol- lows at 38%; and Verbal (the actual words) makes up the remaining 7%. The key point is that when senders are focused only on their words increases the opportunity for miscom- munication.

Understanding the percentage of the total message each message component contributes helps in also understanding the five basic message channels and their contributions to the message. The reality is that not only is communicating with individuals from other countries problematic, but communications with other individuals from our own country as well.

Nonverbal communication accounts for 55 percent of the total message we deliver. When verbal and tonal portions conflict with the nonverbal portion, people believe the nonverbal message. Each time we communicate it is not just the words the receiver is focusing on, but also our actions and gestures play a large part in how the receiver interprets our mes- sage.

Nonverbal communication has six basic functions:

• Accenting – punctuating verbal communication • Complementing – reinforcing the spoken message • Contradicting – conveying messages opposite to the verbal message • Regulating – controlling the course of a conversation • Repeating – stand alone – the gestures send the same meaning as the verbal por- tion of the message • Substituting – replacing a verbal message

Summary

25

Human Relations

You must be aware of what type of nonverbal symbols exist as you prepare to send a mes- sage. The eyes are the single most important area for nonverbal communication – eye contact is especially important.

Many types of communication affect us as organizational members. Forms of communi- cation include: Formal – official communication traveling through the formal/structured organization network. Informal – travels through the grapevine but is extremely powerful in helping or hindering organizational efforts to achieve its goals.

There are differences in communication styles between the genders. Men are not better than women at communicating and women are not better than men at communicating. Their communication methods are just different. Gender is only one of the numerous ways communications are influenced.

Self Test

26

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) As Deb works this morning compiling sales and expense results for her work unit, she prepares the documents in a format required by her supervisor. This type of feedback is referred to as ________.

A) Upward communication B) Lateral communication C) Open-door policy D) Downward communication

2) A sender choosing the words and symbols to include in a message is begin ning the process of ________.

A) Encoding B) Feedback C) Channeling D) Decoding

3) A receiver translating a sender’s message is beginning the process of ________.

A) Channeling B) Feedback C) Decoding D) Encoding

4) Communications that are neither spoken nor written are called ________.

A) Interactional B) Nonverbal C) Deployment D) Verbal

5) Which message channel is best for delivering the maximum amount of the sender’s message content?

A) Face-to-group B) Phone C) Third-party D) Face-to-face

Self Test

27

Human Relations

6) When using face-to-face communication channel, how much of your total message is contributed through gestures and other nonverbal signals?

A) 45% B) 55% C) 38% D) 7%

7) Which nonverbal communication function supports, but does not replace the verbal message?

A) Complementing NVC B) Accenting NVC C) Regulating NVC D) Substituting NVC

8) Which nonverbal communication function conveys a meaning opposite that of the verbal message?

A) Accenting NVC B) Substituting NVC C) Contradicting NVC D) Repeating NVC

9) You have never seen or met Dana before. As your friend, Art, introduces the two of you, Dana extends her hand palm up and shakes your hand twice. What message is Dana sending you with this handshake?

A) Dana believes you to be her superior. B) Dana believes she is superior to you. C) Dana believes Art is superior to both of you. D) Dana believes you and she are peers.

10) Which part of the head provides the most important and key nonverbal sym- bols?

A) The mouth B) The nose C) The forehead D) The eyes

Answer Keys

28

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Communication: is defined as the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information by speech, signals, writing, or behavior between a sender or receiver.

Feedback: a verbal or nonverbal response by a receiver to the sender’s message/.

Nonverbal Communication: non-spoken communication through gestures and expressions.

Third-party communication: means that A tells B to tell C something. While this often means A talks face-to-face with B and B speaks face-to-face with C, this is still a last- resort method.

Formal Communication: is the official communication that travels through the structured (formal) organizational network.

Informal Communication: is the real workhorse of message networks, one that can either help or hinder an organization’s efforts to achieve its goals. Informal communication travels through a channel often referred to as the grapevine a network that is usually much quicker than official channels.

Filtering: the removal of parts of a message.

Answer Keys

29

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)A 2)A 3)C 4)B 5)D 6)D 7)A 8)C 9)A 10)D

Notes

30

Human Relations

Objectives

31

Human Relations

Chapter Number Four Improving Communications and Managing Conflict

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Determine, describe, and give examples of the 14 barriers to communication.

2. Assess the importance of listening and identify methods to improve listening.

3. Evaluate methods to break down communication barriers.

4. Describe methods to improve communication.

5. Compare and positive and negative conflicts.

6. Survey eight methods for managing conflict.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 113-138 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition by: Michael Drafke

Overview

32

Human Relations

This chapter continues the discussion of communications from the previous chapter and focuses on improving communications. Special emphasis will be placed on improving listening skills and conflict management.

Key Terms

33

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Lying: Judging: Snap judgments: Gatekeepers: Rank: Credibility Gaps: Verbal Cocoons: Open Question: Conflict Offer: Perception:

Summary

34

Human Relations

Effective communications require a mutual understanding between the message, the sender encoded, and the message the receiver decoded. This chapter provides a descrip- tion of the various types of noise that impact the very ability for communications to be effective.

Many stumbling blocks become noise and decrease opportunities for effective commu- nication. Understanding the principal communication barriers can assist you in avoiding or overcoming them in the future. Some of the common barriers to communication are: lying, perceptions, over eagerness to respond, closed words, judging, credibility gap, voice, verbal cocoon, thought speech-rate differential, emotions, snap judgments, attacking the individual, rank, gatekeepers and poor listening.

Most individuals have had little formal training in the skill of listening. Listening is an im- portant element in effective communication. Effective listening habits are essential for all organizational members and managers. Effective communication requires the overcoming of the many communication barriers that continually confront organizational members.

The following factors contribute to effective listening: showing interest; expressing em- pathy; being silent when silence is needed; eliminating distractions; allowing adequate time for discussion; taking note of accompanying nonverbal cues; restating what you think you heard in the form of a question; asking simple, direct questions to get the necessary information when you feel that something is missing; not arguing; not interrupting; not engaging in other activities when you are supposed to be listening; not passing judgment too quickly or in advance; not jumping to conclusions; and not letting the other person’s emotions act too directly on your own all contribute to effective listening.

Much conflict does exist in organizations. The root causes for such conflict are: • Individual differences in beliefs, knowledge, and values. • Competition for a promotion. • Competition for power. • Need for autonomy. • Differing perceptions of the organization and its mission. • Completion for recognition. • Personal dislike for others.

The facial indicators of lying include 1) variables involving the eye area and 2) facial expression balance. The eyes can indicate lying through eye contact, blink rate, and pupil dilation. People who are lying may blink more often than people who are telling the truth, and it is difficult to stop the eyes from blinking involuntarily. Pupil dilation is virtually im- possible to control. While it is harder to consciously observe pupil dilation, we are typically attuned to it subconsciously.

Not all conflict is negative, depending on how it is managed, conflict can be positive or negative. Whether a conflict is positive or negative is up to the participating individuals. It is possible to manage many conflicting situations to the point where they are at least tolerable.

Negative conflicts have the following characteristics: • Feud mentality – pitting one group against another • Going for broke – each side wanting it all with no tolerance for compromise • Me syndrome – only seeing one side of the issue • You syndrome – people are attacked as individuals

Summary

35

Human Relations

Positive conflicts have the following characteristics: • Problem-solving mentality – everyone working together to solve problems • Going for mutual satisfaction – all sides trying to work for a solution all can live with • Everyone syndrome – each side recognizing the other side has legitimate concerns • Just the facts – discussion centers on the facts of the problem and not the indi- viduals involved

Conflict is inevitable but conflict can be managed. Managing conflict requires identifying the type of conflict involved in a situation and choosing the appropriate method to reduce or resolve the conflict.

Self Test

36

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Which barrier to communication involves deliberately deceiving others for the purpose of their detriment and your gain?

A) Snap judgment B) Prejudice C) Lying D) Closed words

2) Amanda has been told to use open questions when she interviews job candi- dates. What should she be considering as she prepares her questions?

A) Questions with more than two correct answers. B) Questions with no answer. C) Questions requiring more than just a yes or no answer. D) Questions that can be answered yes or no.

3) As Amanda reviews her interview questions, she realizes her list contains only closed questions. Which type of questions has she written?

A) Questions with no answer. B) Questions with more than two correct answers. C) Questions that can only be answered yes or no. D) Questions requiring more than just a yes or no answer.

4) In working to resolve a conflict, it is often helpful to view the conflict from the perspectives of the other party. The conflict demand involved would in clude ________.

A) what you have to give if your conflict demand is met B) what you are asking for C) what will happen if your conflict demand is not met D) what you will lose if the conflict does not go your way

5) The conflict threat involved in a communication message includes ________.

A) what you have to give if your conflict demand is met B) what you are asking for C) what will happen if your conflict demand is not met D) what you will lose if the conflict does not go your way

Self Test

37

Human Relations

6) Options involved in a conflict involve which of the following?

A) The different approaches to handling a conflict. B) The different approaches to starting a conflict. C) The alternatives that will resolve a conflict. D) The alternative approaches to ending a conflict.

7) Jamal looked at Sue and said, “We have to renegotiate these rates. The price of energy has dropped dramatically and our recent school funding referendum failed. My high school cannot afford to heat the buildings properly at this rate. Energy costs are second only to teacher salaries for us. If we can’t get a better rate, the board has no choice but to close this school and send the students across the town. That will mean overcrowding for the students but it will also mean much less money for you because that building has the ex- perimental solar and methane gas co-generation plant. If the rate can be cut in half, we would be willing to extend our agreement to buy from you beyond the 18 months we have left to 4 years.”What is the conflict demand in this situation?

A) To build a co-generation plant. B) To close the building and move the students across town. C) To extend the current agreement to four years. D) To reduce the energy rate to half the current rate.

8) What is the conflict offer in this situation?

A) An end to the current agreement in 18 months. B) More money per year for the energy company. C) To move the students across town. D) An energy rate that is half the current rate.

9) Conflict that results in mutual satisfaction for all involved would best be de- scribed as ________.

A) positive conflict B) negative conflict C) arbitration conflict D) mutual conflict

10) Conflict that results in the dissatisfaction of one or more parties involved is best described as ________.

A) negative conflict B) mutual conflict C) arbitration conflict D) positive conflict

Answer Keys

38

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Lying: the deliberate deception of others to their detriment or your gain is an obvious bar- rier to communication.

Judging: a barrier to communication when it replaces a statement of facts.

Snap judgments: people jumping to conclusions and using closed words, which are words that eliminate the possibility that there are exceptions to the rule.

Gatekeepers: are individuals who determine what information is received by key decision makers.

Rank: a person’s relative status in an organization.

Credibility Gaps: are the cynical distrust of the communication that flows throughout an organization. They can cause people to disbelieve many of your future statements.

Verbal Cocoons: exist when managers perceive their role as authoritative and one that involves the initiation of action and decision making.

Open Question: a question requiring more than just a yes or no answer.

Conflict Offer: what you will give the other side if it meets your demand

Perception: seeing things colored by our past experiences, our present moods, our atti- tudes, our peers, and much more.

Answer Keys

39

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)C 3)C 4)B 5)C 6)C 7)D 8)C 9)A 10)A

Notes

40

Human Relations

Unit 1 Examination Instructions

41

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit One Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and follow the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writing standards and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course.

Human Relations

Unit 1 Examination

42

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) The physical work environment consists of which elements?

A) The building, layout, equipment, décor, and other structural elements in the workplace. B) The employee’s aggregate perceptions of the work, managerial style, and co- worker influences. C) The coworkers and managers in the workplace. D) The policies, pay, benefits, and rewards received in the workplace.

2) Bill works in the payroll department at Cooper Metals. He is responsible for ensuring employee paychecks are accurate. Most of Cooper’s employees work irregular hours including occasional overtime, which makes his job even more challenging. When an employee believes their check is wrong, Bill is the first to hear about it. The resulting stress wears on him. What is the cause of Bill’s stress?

A) Authority level B) Autonomy level C) Error visibility D) Work pace

3) Morgan has autonomy in her job. Which description defines the benefit she experiences from this autonomy?

A) The precision or exactness she needs to attain when completing each task. B) The ability she has to perform her job independently with minimal supervi- sion. C) The fixing of close, undivided attention by her manager on her task comple- tion. D) The power or ability she has to command organizational resources.

4) Which term refers to the number of employees voluntarily quitting their jobs in a given period of time?

A) Tardiness B) Downsizing C) Absenteeism D) Turnover

5) Frederick Taylor is associated with which school of management thought?

A) Need Theory of Management B) Scientific management C) Total Quality Management D) Human Relations Theory

Unit 1 Examination

43

Human Relations

6) The task duration involved in an employee’s job is best described as which of the following?

A) The length of time needed to complete one task. B) The diversity or differences in the speed of work. C) The time required to perform a job task and the time between tasks. D) The maximum speed the fastest worker can perform a task flawlessly.

7) What does concentration on a work task entail?

A) How accountable someone is for obtaining results from their work tasks. B) How difficult the work task is to perform. C) The fixing of close, undivided attention on the work task. D) The precision or exactness needed to complete the work task

8) Lisa works as the Accounting Supervisor for Ball Goods Corp. She is a fast- tracker within the organization and has her eyes set on a Regional Manage- ment position she’s heard may be opening up. She seems to be spending more time ensuring errors and problems in the department are not pointed her way. She would be considered what type of caustic coworker?

A) Lone wolf B) Blameless C) Critic D) Boaster

9) Employees who spend more time spreading gossip about others than perform- ing their jobs are known as ________.

A) Lone wolfs B) Squealers C) Critics D) Lazy workers

10) When studying perceptions, the term mental set refers to which of the follow- ing statements?

A) An individual’s aggregate perceptions of work. B) The individual’s perception of what they want regardless of reality. C) The factual influences in an individual’s life. D) What an individual thinks is happening.

Unit 1 Examination

44

Human Relations

11) John made the assumption that because Bill is good at inventory ordering, he will automatically be good at data entry. On what basis is John making this decision?

A) He is using projection. B) He is using the rusty halo effect. C) He is a victim of the fallacy of composition. D) He is using the halo effect.

12) Which of the following statements best describes the fallacy of composition?

A) The assumption that when one event precedes another, the first caused the second. B) The assumption that what is true for the whole is true for each of the parts. C) The ignoring or distorting of reality to hold onto assumptions. D) The assumption that what is true of a part is true also of the whole.

13) Which of the following statements best describes the fallacy of division?

A) The ignoring or distorting of reality to hold onto assumptions. B) The assumption that when one event precedes another, the first caused the second. C) The assumption that what is true of a part is true also of the whole. D) The assumption that what is true for the whole is true for each of the parts.

14) Jamison worked hard for his degree. He even had a mock diploma hang- ing over his desk as motivation. Graduation day was the proudest day of his life. Jamison was now pushing the employees he manages to enroll in college and get a degree. “If a degree meant so much to me,” he reasoned, “it will mean much to them, and it will motivate them.” What type of reasoning is Jamison using?

A) Multivalued Reasoning B) Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc C) Fallacy of Division D) Fallacy of Wishing it Were So

15) George believes women do not belong in the workplace. When Maureen ap- plied for a job in his department, he knew just from looking at the name on her resume that she was not qualified for the job. Which determinant of per- ception is at play in this example?

A) Hereditary B) Peer Pressure C) Halo Effect D) Snap Judgment

Unit 1 Examination

45

Human Relations

16) As Deb works this morning compiling sales and expense results for her work unit, she prepares the documents in a format required by he supervisor. This type of feedback is referred to as ________.

A) Downward communication B) Open-door policy C) Upward communication D) Lateral communication

17) A sender choosing the words and symbols to include in a message is begin- ning the process of ________.

A) Feedback B) Channeling C) Decoding D) Encoding

18) Feedback can best be described as ________.

A) The sender’s selection of the words in their message and the order presented. B) The receiver’s verbal or nonverbal responses to the sender’s message. C) The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. D) The way someone looks at something happening in the workplace.

19 )Which message channel is best for delivering the maximum amount of the sender’s message content?

A) Phone B) Third-party C) Face-to-group D) Face-to-face

20) Doublespeak is best defined by which statement?

A) ”Friday will be your last workday. We are debloating the workforce.” B) Don’t make me say it again.” C) ”It is essential that you check everything twice.” D) ”We have too many employees. In other words, some people have to be fired.”

Unit 1 Examination

46

Human Relations

21) Snap judgments are best defined as ________.

A) deliberate deception of others B) forming opinions C) conclusions drawn instantly D) all-inclusive words

22) The conflict threat involved in a communication message includes ________.

A) what will happen if your conflict demand is not met B) what you will lose if the conflict does not go your way C) what you are asking for D) what you have to give if your conflict demand is met

23) ”I would like to call this first meeting of union representatives and manage- ment to discuss quality issues to order,” said Senior VP Raul Chavez. “As you all should know, we must either significantly increase quality or we will lose virtually all of our current contracts.” Denise Wallace interjected, “The union has drawn up a list of actions for both union members and management to take and I previously sent a copy to Andy Dobbins.” Dobbins, Senior Op- erations Manager, held up the list and said, “I’ve looked over the list and most of these are workable. I’ve also added a few ideas from management.” Raul looked around the table and said, “May I suggest we look over everything we have to date, change or make additions to that and come to a consensus on actions managers and union members can take?” The others nodded in agreement. What conflict characteristics are present here?

1. feud mentality 2. everyone syndrome 3. going for broke 4. me syndrome 5. you syndrome 6. problem-solving mentality

A) 2 and 6 B) 1, 3, 4, and 5 C) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 D) 2, 4, 5, and 6

24) Jamal looked at Sue and said, “We have to renegotiate these rates. The price of energy has dropped dramatically and our recent school funding referendum failed. My high school cannot afford to heat the buildings properly at this rate. Energy costs are second only to teacher salaries for us. If we can’t get a better rate, the board has no choice but to close this school and send the students across the town. That will mean overcrowding for the students but it will also mean much less money for you because that building has the ex- perimental solar and methane gas co-generation plant. If the rate can be cut

Unit 1 Examination

47

Human Relations

in half, we would be willing to extend our agreement to buy from you beyond the 18 months we have left to 4 years.”

What is the conflict demand in this situation?

A) To extend the current agreement to four years. B) To close the building and move the students across town. C) To build a co-generation plant. D) To reduce the energy rate to half the current rate.

25) What is the conflict offer in this situation?

A) An end to the current agreement in 18 months. B) More money per year for the energy company. C) To move the students across town. D) An energy rate that is half the current rate.

Unit 1 Examination

48

Human Relations

Written Assignment for Unit One

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1) List and describe the elements of the physical work environment.

2) List and describe the six functions of nonverbal communication.

3) List the five message channels and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

You Can Do It

49

Human Relations

You have just completed Unit 1 of this course.

You are off to a great start! Keep up the good work!

Objectives

50

Human Relations

Instructions to Students

Chapter Number Five Ethics and Etiquette

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of casual business attire.

2. Classify the differences between ethics and etiquette.

3. Discover and explain ethical challenges to business.

4. Evaluate guidelines related to employing socially responsible programs.

5. Determine meeting etiquette.

6. Describe the etiquette of business dining, including that for ordering, discussing business, using utensils, host and guest etiquette, and proper manners.

7. Recommend the actions that can be taken when others break the rules of etiquette.

• Read pages 142-177 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

51

Human Relations

The main goal for this chapter is to discuss correct behavior. Ethics and etiquette involve different types of correct behavior, and both are vital to your success as others are con- stantly evaluating the acceptability of your behavior. Etiquette is another important aspect of organizational behavior that can make or break a career, cost someone a job, or at least prove embarrassing.

Key Terms

52

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Ethics:

Etiquette:

Morality:

Hostile Takeover:

Profit-quest:

Social-Accountability:

Trustee-of-Profit Philosophy:

Profit-Quest Approach:

Summary

53

Human Relations

Both ethics and etiquette are involved with behavior as identified by society. Our cowork- ers, managers, and other individuals in our workplaces are constantly evaluating our be- havior in terms of what is and is not acceptable to their norms. Unfortunately we tend to find the majority of examples to use in class discussions focus on those that are deemed to be unacceptable.

Ethics and etiquette are both related to the behavior and treatment of others. Both are also vital to your success, both within and outside of the workplace. We are constantly evaluated by others based on the acceptability of our behavior.

Businesses provide jobs and help enhance a worker’s standard of living by paying wages, offering benefits, etc. From this perspective, businesses have a positive influence on so- ciety. However, too often we are also presented with examples of their negative influence when we hear stories about unfair treatment of employees, claims of sexual harassment, disparate wages, accounting fraud, insider trading, etc.

While not all businesses have been caught conducting unethical practices, it is often dif- ficult to escape the perception of ethical breaches and corporate greed. Also, any business faces ethical pressures from many factors, including: • Customers • Employees • Creditors • Competitors • Owners and management

These pressures in turn place demands on and impact business resources, including: • Cash • Management • Technology • Acquisitions and restructuring • Environment

While we often speak and read about productivity advances resulting from technology enhancements, the reality is today’s businesses tend to expect more and more from their employees and we are only beginning to focus on the resulting stress impact on employ- ees. Additionally the ever-increasing amounts of data and information stored on comput- ers and other electronic devices may lead towards unethical behavioral actions. Actions of all individuals with access towards this information need to be watched closely in today’s world of identity theft and privacy violations.

An issue impacting behavior in our organizations is related to the income bonuses CEOs and other key executives receive from our firms. In the day of executive compensation outpacing employee compensation at a ten or more fold rate, this reality undoubtedly has an ethical impact on behavior in the firm. As society’s values continue to change towards the greening of the environment, we will see more and more pressure on firm’s to adopt business practices that preserve the environment. Society will look for organizations to do this on their own rather than because of governmental laws and regulations.

Organizations should focus on managing ethics, modeling the desired ethical behavior at all times, and working to provide an ethical environment for both their internal and exter- nal constituents Managers have a tremendous impact on the ethical culture in their firms. Managers need to not only define ethics in terms of behavior acceptable for the organiza-

Summary

54

Human Relations

tion, but must also communicate that ethic through the development of a code of ethics and training programs for all. Ethical codes of conduct need to be followed on an ongoing basis with reinforcement and follow-up a critical activity.

Individuals in an organization often are faced with making difficult choices because of the impact the decision may have on their income and career with the firm. Thinking about and addressing social responsibility concerns unfortunately often comes only after some sort of crisis or, in other words, as a reactive response. One of the most important guide- lines for social action is that all levels of managers within the firm must be committed to the firm’s social programs. Even more important is that management’s commitment is ongoing and a significant part of the firm’s organizational goals and plans. Additionally, management must be realistic about the costs of such programs and be committed to the funding of social responsibility activities.

Etiquette is not widely addressed in organizations. Often the assumption is that workers already have a sense of etiquette. However, a worker not conforming to etiquette stan- dards during business interactions can result in lost customers, sales, and profits. Eti- quette is concerned with correct behavior and practices according to society. This connec- tion with society is key for students to understand as interactions and relationships with firms contain large social components. Additionally whether right or not, people look at your behavior and lack of conformity to etiquette and project that image to your ability (or inability) to perform effectively in your job.

Self Test

55

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Morality is best defined as ________.

A) society’s responsibility toward a person B) a person’s responsibility toward society C) the goodness or badness of human action or behavior D) the rules or principles that define right and wrong conduct

2) Social accountability is best defined as ________.

A) the belief the only social duty of business is to maximize profits and pay taxes B) the goodness or badness of human action or behavior C) the belief companies are corporate citizens and have a responsibility toward society D) society’s responsibility toward a person

3) Which generation of employees are considered to be contributing factors to recent ethical violations in the workplace?

A) Baby Boomers B) WWII veterans C) Next generation D) Generation X

4) In which of the following business situations should you write a thank you note?

A) When you have received a gift. B) When someone has performed well. C) When someone has closed a first, or important, sale or deal. D) All of the above

5) Which of the following may occur as a result of a company’s acquisition or restructuring?

A) Increased turnover or absenteeism B) Increased accident rates C) Decreased productivity D) All of the above

Self Test

56

Human Relations

6) Moral principles of right conduct are ________.

A) morality B) responsibility C) etiquette D) ethics

7) Standards set by society for proper behavior and practices are known as ________.

A) ethics B) morality C) etiquette D) responsibility

8) The goodness or badness of human action or behavior is ________.

A) ethics B) morality C) responsibility D) etiquette

9) A view of social responsibility where the business owner focuses on generating profits is known as the ________ philosophy.

A) Enlightened self-interest B) Profit-action C) Profit-quest D) Trustee-of-profit

10) A manager who focuses on social goals as the overall goal of management would be considered to follow the ________ philosophy of social responsibility.

A) Enlightened self-interest B) Profit-action C) Trustee-of-profit D) Profit-quest

Answer Keys

57

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Ethics: are a set of moral principles of right conduct.

Etiquette: is concerned with correct behavior and practices as defined by social conven- tion – what society believes is acceptable, correct, and appropriate behavior.

Morality: is the goodness or badness of human actions and behavior.

Hostile Takeover: Where company A buying Company B when Company B does not wish to be purchased.

Profit-quest: believes that business should stick to the business of business, maximize profits, pay taxes, and allow the government to solve problems with tax money.

Social-Accountability: states that business has responsibilities as a corporate citizen.

Trustee-of-Profit Philosophy: a corporation’s sole responsibility is to produce profits, and any expenditure on corporate social goals amounts to a hidden tax on workers, customers, and shareholders.

Profit-Quest Approach: the attainment of a high standard of living is a result of the private enterprise system in the United States.

Answer Keys

58

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)C 3)A 4)D 5)D 6)D 7)C 8)B 9)D 10)A

Notes

59

Human Relations

Objectives

60

Human Relations

Chapter Number Six Jobs, From Design to Appraisal

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Determine the elements which comprise a job.

2. Differentiate employment-at-will from job contracts.

3. Predict and describe several job trends.

4. Recommend and create strategies for finding a job.

5. Measure advantages and disadvantages of specialization.

6. Scrutinize a job analysis.

7. Evaluate the suggestions for conducting and participating in interviews.

8. Measure and create appraisal responses.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 180-214 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

61

Human Relations

The focus of the chapter is on the awareness of how organizations describe work in the form of jobs. Since our jobs define our role as workers in the organization, it is essential we understand the process of job design and its relationship on our performance apprais- als, training plans, and relationship to the organizational hierarchy.

Key Terms

62

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Job:

Experience:

Skills:

Abilities:

Employment Agreement:

Contract:

Job Design:

Job Descriptions:

Job Specifications:

Cognitive Demand:

Work Effectiveness:

Summary

63

Human Relations

Understanding what a job is and what components it is made up of further helps our un- derstanding of the motivations and goals involved in creating and filling jobs. To individual workers, our jobs are our identity. To managers, a job is a collection of tasks that need to be completed in order for the organization to meet its goals in an efficient and effective manner.

As we study jobs and components of jobs, it is also key to take a look at what jobs will be like in the future. While no one knows for sure what the job world will be like in the future, what is known are trends in today’s workplaces.

As job trends evolve and the workplace changes, workers find themselves needing to take an active role in their own career management. This means today’s employees are respon- sible for many aspects of their own careers, including-determining what work and jobs are in demand so that they can match their skills with today and tomorrow’s job needs, know- ing what companies need, interpersonal skills, listening skills, problem-solving skills and self-management skills. To obtain and retain a job, it is necessary to not only know what a job is, but also how jobs are designed and described and how your performance on the job will be appraised.

The five components of the job characteristics model of job design are: • Task variety refers to the assortment of skills workers need to perform tasks in their jobs. • Task identity refers to how closely the work you do is related to the final, finished product. • Task significance refers to the effect one individual’s work has on the work of oth- ers. • Autonomy refers to the freedom workers have to perform tasks and control their own work schedules. • Feedback is the direct receipt of job-related information between manager and employee.

Following the job analysis process, job descriptions and job specifications are prepared for each job in the organization. Job descriptions – an outline of the work and tasks to be completed:

• Work tasks • Duties • Responsibilities • Working conditions • Tools and equipment

Job specifications, outlines the characteristics required by an individual to perform the job as outlined in the job description

• Work experience • Education • Skills and abilities • Licenses and certificate needs

Interviewing is a consultation and conversation that takes place between a manager and a present or past employee or between a manager and a job applicant. The style used for an

Summary

64

Human Relations

interview generally depends on the nature and focus of the interview, as well as the experi- ence of the manager involved. What is necessary is that the manager involved adapt his or her style to suit the situation at hand.

Interview styles include:

• Structured (directive) – follows a predetermined pattern • Unstructured (nondirective) – attempts to avoid influencing interviewee’s remarks • Group – many individuals involved • Stress – interviewee is placed in a simulated realistic situation to see how they respond to stress

The performance appraisal is utilized to determine if the individual worker hired to per- form the job as described in the job descriptions is doing so at a satisfactory level. Em- ployees should know what criteria will be utilized to appraise their performance.

Criteria often include:

• Attitude • Compatibility • Dependability • Knowledge • Efficiency • Organization

All evaluations should include a review of the past and the present, as well as a look into the future as a means of establishing goals and plans for the future. Managers do not always cherish and value the performance evaluation process, especially when the employ- ee’s ratings are low. Preparing performance evaluations takes time and focus away from their other job duties and requirements. Appraisal threats do often occur that decrease the accuracy of a performance evaluation.

Many individuals fear losing their job, losing a job does not always mean you were fired for nonperformance. Other reasons include layoffs and plant closings. Many firms offer sever- ance packages as well as outplacement services for those individuals who do lose their jobs.

Self Test

65

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) The XYZ Corporation has closed its Human Resources department, terminated the department’s employees, and contracted with an outside firm to perform the human resource-related work. Which of the following terms best de scribes what XYZ Corporation has done?

A) Reengineering B) Outsourcing C) Reorganization D) Outplacement

2) Barbara is considered to be a contingent worker by her employer. Which statement below best describes Barbara’s role in her workplace?

A) An individual who has skills needed to perform a job. B) An individual whose job has been reengineered. C) An individual whose job has been redesigned. D) An individual who is hired temporarily and receives no benefits.

3) What are the technical skills an employee needs to complete the job duties as outlined in their job description?

A) The skills needed to manage yourself. B) The skills to communicate and work with others. C) The skills needed to supervise other individuals. D) The skills needed to perform job tasks.

4) The process of job design includes ________.

A) Planning how and when to hire employees. B) Creating a list of tasks needed to be performed in order to manage a job. C) Defining and dividing tasks into jobs and describing the jobs and individuals best capable of performing them. D) Listing the assortment of skills a person needs to perform their job.

5) The organizing principle that refers to the importance of a structure for pro- viding direction and control in an organization is called ________.

A) chain of command B) line authority C) span of control D) hierarchical structure

Self Test

66

Human Relations

6) Which department in an organization offers support and advice to others?

A) Vertical B) Pyramid C) Staff D) Line

7) Which organizational principle involves employees functioning under little or no management supervision?

A) Responsibility B) Departmentalization C) Autonomy D) Duty

8) ________ is defined as the degree to which tasks performed by employees are alike.

A) Task similarity B) Task dispersion C) Task autonomy D) Task capability

9) An informal group of individuals working to solve a common set of problems is known as a ________.

A) community of practice B) earning community C) virtual corporation D) knowledge community

10) A company’s core competency is best described as ________.

A) outsourcing key tasks and resources B) focusing employees on working for the organization C) reducing the size of the organization D) doing what it does best

Answer Keys

67

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Job: is a collection of tasks. Task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job-related feedback comprise a job.

Experience: refers to the amount of required prior experience performing the same job.

Skills: are learned or acquired capabilities.

Abilities: are essentially capabilities people are born with.

Employment Agreement: is an implied contract, which may not be upheld in court.

Contract: is a legally binding document outlining the terms under which one performs work.

Job Design: is the process of defining the work to be done, dividing the work into jobs, describing the jobs, and describing the individual capable of performing the jobs.

Job Descriptions: an outline of the work and tasks to be completed.

Job Specifications: outlines the characteristics required by an individual to perform the job as outlined in the job description

Cognitive Demand: refers to the mental requirements of a job like the number of systems a person must know how to operate or the number of problems a person must solve.

Work Effectiveness: is the integration of tasks and jobs in order to carry out the mission of the company in meeting the needs of customers.

Answer Keys

68

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)B 2)D 3)D 4)C 5)D 6)C 7)C 8)A 9)A 10)D

Notes

69

Human Relations

Objectives

70

Human Relations

Chapter Number Seven Formal Organizations: How People Organize

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Measure the hierarchical structure principle.

2. Discover the unity of command principle.

3. Differentiate between line and staff departments.

4. Evaluate the division of labor principle as it applies to for- mal organizations.

5. Distinguish the features and functions of an organization chart.

6. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of functional, geographic, customer, product, matrix, horizontal, learning, virtual, and developing organizational structures.

7. Determine the reasons for using organizational structures.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 218-240 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

71

Human Relations

The main goal of this chapter is to introduce you to the structure of organizations. The dif- ferent organizations, the guidelines for forming them, and their characteristics help to cre- ate the surrounding in which organizational behavior occurs. It can be a great advantage to your work life to understand the structure of any organization to which you belong.

Key Terms

72

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Line and Staff Principle:

Division of Labor Principle:

Worker Autonomy:

Organization Chart:

Departmentalization:

Learning Organization:

Hierarchical Structure Principle:

Unity of Command Principle:

Summary

73

Human Relations

An understanding of the principles of organizational design and structure is helpful for students, as they understand the organizational system they are a part of in their work environment. Much can be learned about a firm from a graphical depiction of its structure on an organizational chart. This knowledge is also beneficial for understanding the behav- ior that takes place.

Common organizational styles included:

• Functional – the most common style. Departments are formed by grouping similar activities and jobs. Departments are formed by their occupations: accounting, HR, marketing, etc. • Geography – departments are formed by geographic location. Coordination of activities within a geographic region is the key advantage. • Customer – departments formed based on customer focus and need, offers a close relationship with the customer and close attention to customer needs. Focus is on the relationship with the customer. • Product – departments focused on product knowledge or on a specific product. • Matrix – a newer trend in organizational style. This style is project based and does violate key management principles discussed earlier including unit of com- mand as the employees involved report to their functional department head and a project manager. The key is that this structure is typically temporary for the term of the project. • Horizontal – another newer trend in organizational style. The company is divided into core processes with a team manager or leader assigned to each. The premise is that the organization is flat as unessential tasks not related to the customer needs are eliminated. The intent is to increase efficiency, process times, remove boundaries, and ultimately meet the needs of customers through quicker response times.

The division of labor, or specialization, principle makes possible increased expertise, faster training, the completion of large jobs, and the compression of time (jobs are completed in less time). Through specialization, labor is divided, and the tasks are then grouped into jobs.

The span of control principle provides guidance for determining the number of workers as- signed to a manager. The span of control is the number of people a manager has under his or her direct control. Previously, it was mentioned that each person should have only one manager, but a manager should not have just one worker. There is no one correct number of people that a manager should have as each situation is different.

The positional power principle states that organizations are most effective when power is vested in the position and not in the person occupying the position.

Functional organizations form departments by grouping similar activities and those per- forming similar jobs. Often the departments are formed along professional or occupational lines. Departmentalization by geography means facilities are located physically close to customers. When customers need the utmost in service, or when they have different needs, departmentalization by customer can be used.

Organization by product means departments are formed around each product. One of the more recent developments in organizational design is the matrix organization. Matrix orga- nizations violate the unity of command principle by assigning people to functional

Summary

74

Human Relations

departments and to projects. Workers report to the functional department head and the project manager. This unique aspect of matrix organizations holds the potential for great conflict, so it is virtually required that everyone in the organization accepts this structure and agrees to work together.

Reengineering is a well-established method for redesigning not only organization struc- tures, but also jobs and management operations. The very basics of reengineering include redesigning work to focus on processes rather than pigeonholing work into numerous restrictive job descriptions based on functional areas. In redesigning work every activity is questioned, and if an activity is not adding value to the product or the service, it is elimi- nated. While the main goal of reengineering is not to reduce the size of the workforce, this does sometimes happen. A redesign around core competencies, on the other hand, frequently leads to a smaller workforce.

A core competency design concentrates on what an organization does best and eliminates the rest. Many of the eliminated functions still need to be performed, but they are done by resources outside of the organization. In other words, core competency firms concentrate expertise in what they do best and eliminate distractions from the pursuit of core success. They then engage other firms with expertise in their areas to complete their work. The advantage of both of these methods is a more efficient organization that delivers greater customer satisfaction. Applying them often leads to downsizing and for core competency firms there can be an increase in risk if the competencies are so narrowly defined that the result is a placement of all the eggs into one basket.

Self Test

75

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) The number of employees a supervisor manages is called ________.

A) employee management B) staff authority C) span of control D) line authority

2) Dividing a job into tasks and assigning them to different people is an applica- tion of which organizing principle?

A) Span of control B) Line and staff C) Hierarchy D) Division of labor

3) Which statement best describes the premise of the positional power principle?

A) Organizational strength is dependent on the grouping of human resources within an organization. B) Departments performing similar activities and jobs must be grouped together in the organization’s hierarchy. C) Power is vested in the position, not in the person occupying the position. D) Power is vested in the person occupying the position, not in the position itself.

4) Bob is in the process of grouping the human resources within his organiza- tion. Which organizational principle is he completing?

A) Job specialization B) Reorganization C) Positional power D) Departmentalization

5) How are departments formed in a customer organization?

A) By merchandise or service B) By similar activities and jobs C) By client or industry served D) By physical location or territory

Self Test

76

Human Relations

6) What type of organization design is focused on how knowledge is acquired and disseminated throughout a firm?

A) Virtual organization B) Horizontal organization C) Liberation management organization D) Learning organization

7) Sam and Beth have formed a partnership combining Sam’s delivery fleet with Beth’s wholesale flower business. The partnership has not gone well and Beth and Sam both see themselves as being responsible for daily operations and neither is working on sales or planning. What organizational principle is being violated here and therefore explains why the problem is occurring?

A) Unity of command principle B) Division of labor principle C) Span of control/management D) Hierarchical structure principle

8) Which department in an organization is directly related to the function of the business?

A) Staff B) Pyramid C) Vertical D) Line

9) Which organizational principle involves employees functioning under little or no management supervision?

A) Autonomy B) Duty C) Departmentalization D) Responsibility

10) A company’s core competency is best described as ________.

A) doing what it does best B) reducing the size of the organization C) outsourcing key tasks and resources D) focusing employees on working for the organization

Answer Keys

77

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Line and Staff Principle: line departments are directly related to the function of the busi- ness; staff departments support the line departments; staff departments cannot be super ordinate to line departments.

Division of Labor Principle: dividing a job into tasks and assigning them to different people. Worker Autonomy: the functioning of workers under little or no supervision.

Organization Chart: the graphic depiction of the formal organization.

Departmentalization: is the term used to define the process firms undergo in determining the grouping of their human resources.

Learning Organization: organization focused on improving learning snd how knowledge is disseminated throughout the firm.

Hierarchical Structure Principle: states that a structure or chain of command is needed in order to provide direction and control for the individuals and the organization as a whole.

Unity of Command Principle: states that each worker should have only one manager. No worker should ever be placed in the position of having to choose which of two equal man- agers to obey.

Answer Keys

78

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)D 3)C 4)D 5)C 6)D 7)A 8)D 9)A 10)A

Notes

79

Human Relations

Objectives

80

Human Relations

Chapter Number Eight Understanding Management

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Classify management’s role in an organization.

2. Distinguish and define the four functions of management.

3. Examine the types of decisions managers make.

4. Determine management principles and describe their effect on the working environment.

5. Evaluate the characteristics of classical management.

6. Compare and contrast between good management and poor management.

7. Determine the worker’s role in an organization.

8. Recommend strategies for coping with being managed.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 244-279 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

81

Human Relations

The relationship between manager and employee is often considered adverse. This chap- ter is important to the study of organizational behavior as its focus is on acquainting stu- dents with the job of management—a job they may find themselves holding in their future. Having this understanding of management should be beneficial to their anticipation of and coping with behavior in their workplace. It is often through this chapter that students real- ize management does have a plan and vision for the organization and its workers.

Key Terms

82

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Management:

External Managerial Environment:

Internal Managerial Environment:

Escapism:

Frederick Taylor:

Time and Motion Studies:

Classical Motivation:

Malicious Managers:

Summary

83

Human Relations

Management can be defined in a multitude of ways, including this common definition “working with and through others to achieve goals”. Management may be defined by the resources used in performing the job of manager, including:

• Human – people • Financial – money • Material – parts, supplies, raw materials • Informational – data and information; facts and knowledge

Management is also defined by the functions managers perform, including:

• Planning – setting goals and objectives • Organizing – grouping resources • Leading or Directing – influencing and motivating • Controlling – ensuring performance matches plans

What managers are working to attain are productivity and profits through the accomplish- ment of goals and plans. Doing so means the organization has been efficient and effec- tive at its aim of becoming a high-performing organization. The role of management takes place both within and outside of the firm. External managerial environment includes the outside groups in direct contact with the company (customers, suppliers, etc.) combined with outside groups who have indirect contact and with which the firm has no control (competitors, laws, economy, government, etc.). Internal managerial environment consists of the company itself (management, employees, organizational culture). Thus, managers perform their jobs in situations over which they may very well have absolutely no control.

The nine-step decision making model was presented earlier. In this chapter, the author provides a discussion of the types of decisions managers make. This discussion is impor- tant in understanding how and why some managerial decisions are made.

• Rational decisions – while individuals expect managers to make rational-logical decisions, what often happens is that other types of decisions are made for a vari- ety of reasons. • Political decisions – take politics into account – can be politically popular, per- sonal political, superior’s political, politically rewarding, politically punishing deci- sions. • Temporal decisions – time is a factor – can be emergency temporal, quick tempo- ral, delayed, barrier, or nondecisions. • Emotional decisions – arise from anger or affective responses. • Economic decisions – based solely on concern for money. • Risk-based decisions – can involve low or extremely high in terms of the change of failure from making a decision. • Conflict-based decisions – potential for causing or avoiding conflict • Buck-passing decisions – sent to another person to be made

When workers are powerless to change a decision, rather than be accepting of a decision, they may find themselves choosing to adopt a coping strategy using one of the following. This lack of power to change a decision we don’t agree with has a significant impact on our workplace behavior.

Summary

84

Human Relations

To understand managers and organizations, it is important for you to understand the man- agement principles that commonly guide them. Common principles used by managers in their jobs have developed over time.

Two main theories of management styles are traditionally discussed when studying man- agement. The two theories are not dichotomous, but rather are actually two ends of a continuum with multiple variations between them. The classical system of management was developed around the time of the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s as large numbers of individuals were brought together to work for someone else. As the Industrial Revolu- tion developed, a means was needed to organize and coordinate the number of individuals and resources being utilized. Classical management then came about partly out of need and partly from example. Command systems – hierarchies with narrow spans of control, strict adherence to rules, and an emphasis on downward communication. Command sys- tems function when managers tell employees what to do and the employees do it without questioning why. Employees are in the workplace to work solely to perform their jobs.

The greatest difference between Behavioral and Classical management theorists is found in the focus of the theories. Classical management – centered on the manager. Behavioral management – focused on the employee. Most managers fall between the two extremes of Classical and Behavioral management

Managers can be good, and they can be poor. The discussion here is on poor management and ways to cope with those who deliberately or negligently harm others and their organi- zations. Little coping is needed when you have good managers. Two general types of poor managers are Incompetent Managers and Malicious Managers. On the positive side, good managers do exist within today’s organization. Good managers today know how to probe for occasions to help the organization succeed. They have learned from examples of previous management and realize styles and methods of the past may not be applicable today.

Self Test

85

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) The management function of ________ involves supervising, disciplining, evaluating, and managing the change of managerial resources.

A) controlling B) planning C) organizing D) directing

2) As Sunil prepares his vision for obtaining organizational goals and showing employees the path or direction for realizing that vision, he is involved with which managerial function?

A) Leading B) Controlling C) Directing D) Motivating

3) A manager focused on giving employees a reason to work, providing incentives for the employees, and moving employees to action describes which manage- ment activity?

A) Leading B) Motivating C) Controlling D) Directing

4) ________ decisions are those based on logic and reason.

A) Rational B) Economic C) Political D) Temporal

5) Sally’s most recent decision did not benefit her but it made her manager look brilliant. What type of decision did Sally make? A) A politically rewarding decision B) A superior’s political decision C) A politically popular decision D) A personal political decision

Self Test

86

Human Relations

6) Last year Ben voted to support Emma’s budget requests and asked for no money to be allocated to his projects. This year Ben reminded Emma that she has to support his requests since he supported hers last year. Even though there will not be enough money for Emma to request dollars for her new projects, she does support Ben’s requests. What type of decision was involved here?

A) A superior’s political decision B) A personal political decision C) A politically rewarding decision D) A politically popular decision

7) ________ decisions are those where time plays a major role.

A) Political B) Economic C) Rational D) Temporal

8) Paul typically screams and yells, gets red in the face, and then makes a deci- sion. What types of decisions does Paul make?

A) Rational decisions B) Barrier decisions C) Affective emotional decisions D) Angry emotional decisions

9) Daryl is afraid to make wrong decisions or to overstep his authority, so he sends his decisions up to his boss. Daryl is employing what type of decision making?

A) Conflict-based decision making B) Affective decision making C) Buck-passing decision making D) Delayed decision making

10) The ________ studies researched the effects of productivity changes in the work environment and the results led to the development of behavioral man- agement.

A) time and motion B) pay-for-performance C) Hawthorne D) command

Answer Keys

87

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Management: can be defined in a multitude of ways, including this common definition, ‘working with and through others to achieve goals’.

External Managerial Environment: includes the outside groups in direct contact with the company (customers, suppliers, etc.) combined with outside groups who have indirect contact and with which the firm has no control (competitors, laws, economy, government, etc.).

Internal Managerial Environment: consists of the company itself (management, employees, organizational culture). Thus, managers perform their jobs in situations over which they may very well have absolutely no control.

Escapism: running away from a detrimental workplace decision through tardiness, absen- teeism, turnover, request for transfer.

Frederick Taylor: is the father of scientific management and is known for utilizing his engi- neering expertise to formulate scientific management principles and theories.

Time and Motion Studies: the key goal of classical management was to increase productiv- ity. Studies at this time focused on decreased wasted movements – by training employees in sequences and combined movements the thought was this decreased those wasted movements.

Classical Motivation: the focus of this is that employees naturally do not want to work. Therefore, managers motivate through fear and money only.

Malicious Managers: when a manager works to actively cause harm or distress to others.

Answer Keys

88

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)A 2)A 3)B 4)A 5)B 6)C 7)D 8)D 9)C 10)C

Notes

89

Human Relations

Unit 2 Examination Instructions

90

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Two Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and follow the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writing standards and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course.

Human Relations

Unit 2 Examination

91

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Morality is best defined as ________.

A) the rules or principles that define right and wrong conduct B) society’s responsibility toward a person C) the goodness or badness of human action or behavior D) a person’s responsibility toward society

2) Which of the following situations describes proper etiquette for using the of- fice copier?

A) You are in the middle of making 80 copies of 3 pages. Frank needs to make one copy of 200 pages and has asked to interrupt your job. B) Your job involves making 20 copies of 8 pages on letterhead paper with 120% magnification, increased darkness, 2-sided copies of 1-sided originals, collated, and stapled. Frank is asking you to stop your job so that he can make 15 copies of 1 page. C) Your job involves making 20 copies of 8 pages on letterhead paper with 120% magnification, increased darkness, 2-sided copies from 1-sided origi- nals, collated, and stapled. When your job is done, you leave the machine with this setup just in case the next person who makes copies needs the same thing. D) You need to make 6 copies of 1 page and believe you should go before Frank who needs to make 14 copies of 31 pages.

3) Which generation of employees are considered to be contributing factors to recent ethical violations in the workplace?

A) Baby Boomers B) Generation X C) WWII veterans D) Next generation

4) Which of the following forces impact the success of a firm?

A) Special employment groups B) Employees C) Consumers D) All of the above

5) Telephone etiquette suggests a phone should be answered in how many rings (or less)?

A) 2 B) 4 C) 5 D) 3

Unit 2 Examination

92

Human Relations

6) Today’s etiquette indicates that cell phones should be used in which of the following places?

A) In the classroom B) In the theater C) In the restaurant D) None of the above

7) Which of the following may occur as a result of a company’s acquisition or restructuring?

A) Increased turnover or absenteeism B) Increased accident rates C) Decreased productivity D) All of the above

8) The goodness or badness of human action or behavior is ________.

A) etiquette B) ethics C) morality D) responsibility

9) The majority of etiquette violations should be addressed ________ with the individual involved.

A) privately B) in court C) indirectly D) publicly

10) Laying off employees and reorganizing a firm is typically referred to as ________.

A) implementation B) acquisition C) quality management D) downsizing

Unit 2 Examination

93

Human Relations

11) What are the interpersonal skills an employee needs to complete the job du- ties as outlined in their job description?

A) The skills to communicate and work with others. B) The skills needed to supervise other individuals. C) The skills needed to perform job tasks. D) The skills needed to manage yourself.

12) Your boss is considering assigning you 26 people to supervise. Seven have only one-year seniority or less and two years in the profession (it usually takes 3 to 4 years to learn all the job tasks). The others are all new. The tasks these workers will perform are interrelated and you, as the supervisor, would have to orchestrate all of their activities. It is also estimated that you will have to spend about 40 percent of your time in planning activities. What should happen to the span of control your boss is considering for you?

A) Remain the same B) Not change C) Increase D) Decrease

13) Sam and Beth have formed a partnership combining Sam’s delivery fleet with Beth’s wholesale flower business. The partnership has not gone well and Beth and Sam both see themselves as being responsible for daily operations and neither is working on sales or planning. What organizational principle is being violated here and therefore explains why the problem is occurring?

A) Division of labor principle B) Hierarchical structure principle C) Span of control/management D) Unity of command principle

14) Mark Majors is Vice-President of Marketing at a large consumer products company. Augusta Sinclair is a new Advertising Manager. Salvador Pina is the chief salesperson. A reorganization is in progress. In order to follow the chain of command principle, which one of these structures is NOT permis- sible?

A) Mark managing Augusta and Salvador B) Augusta managing Mark and Salvador C) Mark, Augusta, and Salvador all managed by separate individuals D) Mark managing Augusta and Salvador in a separate department

Unit 2 Examination

94

Human Relations

15) A company’s core competency is best described as ________.

A) focusing employees on working for the organization B) reducing the size of the organization C) outsourcing key tasks and resources D) doing what it does best

16) Which statement best describes the premise of the positional power principle?

A) Power is vested in the position, not in the person occupying the position. B) Power is vested in the person occupying the position, not in the position itself. C) Departments performing similar activities and jobs must be grouped together in the organization’s hierarchy. D) Organizational strength is dependent on the grouping of human resources within an organization.

17) Bob is in the process of grouping the human resources within his organiza- tion. Which organizational principle is he completing?

A) Job specialization B) Departmentalization C) Positional power D) Reorganization

18) How are departments formed in a functional organization?

A) By physical location or territory B) By merchandise or service C) By client or industry served D) By similar activities and jobs

19) An informal group of individuals working to solve a common set of problems is known as a ________.

A) virtual corporation B) knowledge community C) community of practice D) learning community

Unit 2 Examination

95

Human Relations

20) Which department in an organization is directly related to the function of the business?

A) Vertical B) Staff C) Line D) Pyramid

21) Betty is assigning workers to teams and allocating funds and resources to achieve organizational objectives. Which management function is Betty work ing on?

A) Planning B) Directing C) Organizing D) Controlling

22) A manager focused on giving employees a reason to work, providing incentives for the employees, and moving employees to action describes which manage- ment activity?

A) Directing B) Controlling C) Motivating D) Leading

23) ________ decisions are those based on logic and reason.

A) Political B) Rational C) Economic D) Temporal

24) Paul typically screams and yells, gets red in the face, and then makes a deci- sion. What types of decisions does Paul make?

A) Barrier decisions B) Angry emotional decisions C) Affective emotional decisions D) Rational decisions

Self Test

96

Human Relations

25) Managers who are constantly in a bad mood are typically referred to as ________.

A) grumps B) clueless C) hoarders D) spineless

Unit 2 Examination

97

Human Relations

Written Assignment for Unit Two

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. What can people do to manage and improve business ethics?

2. Explain the three-factor model of job design.

3. List and describe the characteristics of behavioral management.

You Can Do It

98

Human Relations

With Unit 2 complete, you are half way through the course.

Take a break and reward yourself

for a job well done!

Objectives

99

Human Relations

Chapter Number Nine Small Groups and the Informal Organization

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Compare the purpose and nature of formal and informal groups.

2. Detect group member characteristics.

3. Classify the types of group member behavior associated with small groups.

4. Discover how informal groups utilize the grapevine.

5. Evaluate the advantages and deficiencies of group decision making.

6. Rate, describe, and differentiate between two group-forma- tion models.

7. Recommend and describe methods for maximizing team efforts.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 284-308 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

100

Human Relations

This chapter will discuss the power, influence, and inner working of informal groups, small groups, and teams. The use of groups and teams is increasing in the workplace, and the behaviors exhibited by the people in them can be complex. These behaviors can also have a profound effect on you and how you feel about your job.

Key Terms

101

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Group:

Group Synergy:

Formal Groups:

Devil’s advocate:

Task Activities:

Grapevine:

Agenda:

Committees:

Ad Hoc Committee:

Summary

102

Human Relations

The use of groups and teams in today’s workplace continues to grow. Behaviors exhibited by workers in these settings can be complex and difficult to understand. A group is formed when two or more individuals come together and interact. The members of the group typi- cally share similar goals, experiences, and needs.

Group synergy refers to the gains management hopes to attain when organizational mem- bers work together in a group rather than as individuals. It was thought that merely by placing individuals in our organizations in groups, the end result of their productivity would automatically be greater – thus the 2+2=5. When groups have synergy, they attain more than would have been possible had the individuals worked alone.

Work groups have a formal and informal (social) role. Formal groups are required systems within the organization. Management has placed these individuals within the group for the purpose of achieving a predetermined goal or objective. The required systems consist of individuals who are assigned by management.

Informal groups are also known as emergent systems. Whereas formal groups are assigned by management, informal groups emerge on their own. They exist in tandem with, and in spite of, the formal organization. Informal groups are spontaneous and represent the social interactions in the organization. They really exist to satisfy the individual and social needs of an organization’s group members.

Groups are dynamic, and their members often undergo a sort of metamorphosis when they become a member of the group. This reality is somewhat puzzling to management, and an understanding of group member characteristics is beneficial for both management and workers. Group cohesion and attractiveness are two characteristics related to the emo- tional attraction and closeness members have for each other and their group. One way to determine the cohesiveness of a group is when members stop saying “I” and start saying “we”. This cohesion provides the mechanism for giving group members a sense of identity and unity – a feeling of belonging.

Someone, and sometimes more than one person, leads the group. Some people are follow- ers, some contribute, and some just seem to watch. Often there is a secretary or recorder. Some people play “devil’s advocate” meaning they argue against their own beliefs or against the group consensus in order to probe for holes in the logic. They do this so that any holes can be filled or corrected, so a devil’s advocate is actually trying to help the group. However, certain people will argue against what everyone else thinks simply be- cause they like to argue or because they wish to delay the process. Because such people have their own reasons, which typically have little or nothing to do with helping the group, they often succeed in simply blocking the group’s efforts. If “blockers” do not cause trouble for the group, sometimes the roles themselves cause problems.

Team members must be carefully selected to ensure compatibility and to ensure that each person is “bringing something to the party.” Teams are also not naturally self-directing. Teams need to be given a charge — a mission or goal — and this charge needs to be well- defined or the team should be directed to define it as soon as possible. An explicit and narrowed mission will help to eliminate or reduce disagreements (the “storming” phase of the traditional model). Establishing a leader or leaders is also important. The role exists and will be filled by someone; the decision is to let the team argue about leadership, to appoint a leader, or to provide an orderly and quick method for deciding on leadership.

Summary

103

Human Relations

The establishment of leaders by appointing someone places this stem in the forming stage otherwise leadership establishment resides in the focusing stage.

Work groups of the future will be even more diverse than what we are already seeing today. This diversity influences the cohesion of the groups as perceptual mindsets and prejudices impact the behavior of individuals towards other individuals.

The grapevine is the channel that informal communication travels through. It is emergent and thus a part of the informal organization. It exists because of the personal needs of employees. Grapevine communication is fast, this communication does not travel through the formal channels of the organizational hierarchy.

Meetings in organizations are common, necessary, and typically disliked. What is real is that a significant amount of decisions are made today in organizational meetings. What is also real is that a significant amount of these critical meetings are poorly prepared for and run. Managers or other individuals calling the meetings know their intended purpose. That purpose and idea of what should be covered in the meeting is an agenda.

Committees are two or more individuals brought together for the purpose of considering issues or problems related to the organization. Committees can be, ad hoc, standing or task force oriented. The reasoning behind the meeting or committee work should be to, present information, receive feedback and to solve problems. While the decisions made in groups can be synergistic, creative, and innovative, we also must address the dangers that exist to the group decision making process. These damages may deter the group from attaining its 2+2=5 outcome.

Regardless of deficiencies that result from group decision making, the process will con- tinue being utilized as a key role in many organizations. Management and group mem- bers can work together to decrease these deficiencies by reminding all group members of proper meeting etiquette.

Self Test

104

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Walt assigned a group of several employees to be responsible for attaining a departmental goal. In effect, Walt has formed a ________.

A) control group B) formal group C) nominal group D) none of the above

2) Which term applies to the unofficial communications that take place among employees in an organization?

A) Upward communication B) Written communication C) Downward communication D) Grapevine communication

3) Deb consistently argues against the consensus of other members of her group in an effort to probe for weaknesses in the group’s current position. Deb’s role in the group is that of being a ________.

A) leader B) devil’s advocate C) cultural advocate D) manager

4) Role ________ involves confusion over roles in a group and the boundaries of those roles.

A) Ambiguity B) Reduction C) Overload D) Conflict

5) The emotional attraction and closeness group members have for each other and their group is best defined as ________.

A) group standards B) group affiliation C) group attractiveness D) group cohesion

Self Test

105

Human Relations

6) Which statement best describes group maintenance activities?

A) Behaviors that direct beliefs and values. B) Behaviors that transmit informal messages among members. C) Behaviors related to generating interest and demonstrating value. D) Behaviors related to social and emotional needs.

7) Which statement best defines the word teams?

A) Groups whose members are selected to represent internal and external stake- holders. B) Groups whose members are selected to represent various organizational areas. C) Groups whose members are selected based on the variety of knowledge and expertise each member possesses. D) Any work group involved in an organizational environment.

8) Which stage of group formation occurs when group members are focused on becoming acquainted with each other?

A) Performing B) Conforming C) Forming D) Norming

9) Which stage of group formation occurs when group members are facing con- flict over the direction the team will take and the leadership within the group?

A) Storming B) Performing C) Forming D) Conforming

10) You are trying to establish your own small business. You have some contacts in the United States on both coasts and in three countries overseas. You would really like their advice and have finally arranged for everyone to come together face-to-face. You don’t want to waste any meeting time, however, and you need everyone to contribute ideas. Which group decision making approach will work best for what you are attempting to accomplish during the upcoming meeting?

A) Brainwriting B) Nominal group technique C) Brainstorming D) Delphi method

Answer Keys

106

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Group: is formed when two or more individuals come together and interact. The members of the group typically share similar goals, experiences, and needs.

Group Synergy: refers to the gains management hopes to attain when organizational mem- bers work together in a group rather than as individuals.

Formal Groups: required systems formed by management.

Devil’s Advocate: arguing against the consensus of others in the group looking to find a weakness in their position. This is not necessarily a bad thing as not all individuals who take on this role are out to block progress of the group.

Task Activities: behaviors that directly affect goal accomplishment.

Grapevine: the informal communication channel.

Agenda: is the purpose and idea of what should be covered in the meeting.

Committees: are two or more individuals brought together for the purpose of considering issues or problems related to the organization.

Ad Hoc Committee: a committee established to handle a specific situation that dissolves after the task is accomplished.

Answer Keys

107

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)B 2)D 3)B 4)A 5)D 6)D 7)C 8)C 9)A 10)C

Notes

108

Human Relations

Objectives

109

Human Relations

Chapter Number Ten Individuals and Self-Management

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Formulate why a certain degree of conformity among organi- zational members is desirable.

2. Analyze conformity as it relates to privacy, company re- sources, off-the-job activities, workplace affairs, attire, and smoking.

3. Determine the three general areas in which many employers believe that they have the “right to know”.

4. Predict some typical challenges that individuals may have with themselves in organizations.

5. Assess the nature and purpose of organizational politics.

6. Survey, define, and explain the concepts and components of self-management.

7. Evaluate, define, and explain time-management techniques.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 312-348 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

110

Human Relations

The main goal of this chapter is to explore the role of the individual in organizations. We will explore what organizations expect from individuals and how individuals are often treated. Your responsibilities, both the more traditional ones (like time management) and the newer ones (like self-management) are presented in order to decrease the reality shock many experience on their first jobs.

Key Terms

111

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Conformity:

Integrity Tests:

Discipline:

Progressive Discipline:

Organization Politics:

Reason:

Coalition:

Influencers:

Self-Management:

Time Management:

Summary

112

Human Relations

This chapter focuses on the role of the individual in the workplace. Individuals differ in terms of values, attitudes, personalities, perceptions, etc. What happens when those indi- vidual differences come together in the workplace? Understanding the types of individuals found in organizations is beneficial to understanding the behavior of individuals in organi- zations.

• The Angry – upset and irate quickly and often • The Attitude Problem – unhappy—nothing is ever good enough • The Distraught – bring their personal and emotional problems with them regard- less of where they are. Everything is upsetting to the point they don’t know how to go on. • The Entitled – feel are owed something just for showing up for work each day – “What’s in it for me?” • The Gossip – more concerned about gathering and spreading rumors than working • The Legend – don’t see the value of anyone else to the organization • The Literal – only do exactly what you tell them to do • The Never Available – always moving toward the next item on their “To Do” list. Never available and definitely never have enough time for much work. • The Powerless – have power, but won’t use it to make decisions, solve problems, or move forward on any requests.

One of the difficulties facing individuals is that of reconciling the desire for being one’s self to the necessity of being an effective team member in the organization. Conformity is categorized as being either Legitimate or Nonlegitimate. Conformity can relate to thoughts or behavior and involve either on or off job situations.

The privacy issue continues to grow as employers expand their desire for knowing more and more about their employees and believe they have the right to this information. The author describes a survey by members of the Human Resource Management Association. Members of the Association indicated in the survey they believed their firms had the right to gather information about their employees through testing, collecting information, and surveillance.

Discipline has traditionally been a negative activity for purposes of punishing employees. Progressive discipline is an approach to employee discipline that follows a philosophy of increasing severity of disciplinary measures:

• Oral warning • Written warning • Disciplinary layoff • Discharge

Written and complete documentation of disciplinary measures is critical. Discipline should be administered consistently. Discipline should be discussed in private with the employee. Discipline measures should be immediate, consistent, unemotional, and impersonal. Em- ployees should only be dismissed as a last resort, after all other discipline attempts have failed. An easy and simple way to terminate employees does not exist. Useful tips include:

• Come directly to the point • Watch your use of timing • Explain why the employee is being terminated – They should already know the termination is coming if the process has been conducted properly.

Summary

113

Human Relations

• Don’t encourage retaliation by losing your temper or becoming angry. • Allow time for the terminated employee to respond – you should always be in con- trol, however. • Terminate the employee as soon as possible after the decision has been made to do so.

Individuals have a natural tendency to look for an external cause or person to blame for their problems or mistakes. Additionally individuals attempt to rationalize the problem by blaming others. What should happen, however, is looking inward in an attempt to satisfy yourself you really are not to blame.

The Peter Principle refers to the process of an individual being consistently promoted to higher-level positions, but not necessarily having the skills or abilities required for the position. Eventually the individual reaches a level where they are no longer able to effec- tively function and have no one else to blame for their lack of ability.

Fear of admitting errors is where individuals in organizations typically earn far more re- spect from others by admitting when they are wrong or don’t know something. Attempting to hide from the truth generally fails over a period of time.

Organizational politics is an important aspect of organizational life. Many individuals find politics to be negative, and many managers find themselves unable to navigate within the political activities in their organization. Organizational politics refers to the manner in which individuals obtain and hold power within the organization. Individuals accomplish more of their objectives by acquiring the political skills needed to gain and maintain the power they require. Individuals within the formal and informal organization frequently find it is necessary to have influence over others for the accomplishment of a goal.

The concept of self-management has gained prominence as the result of downsizing, em- powerment, and TQM. Today’s worker is asked to do more with less, and there are fewer workers in the workplace to do all that is required. Self-management involves people orga- nizing, controlling, and directing their own work – basically workers managing themselves. Ownership on the part of both management and the individual worker is essential. Workers must accept responsibility for the company as well as their efforts and pride in their work.

Time is the one resource all of us possess in equal amounts. What is different is how we spend our time. Time management is a methodology for accomplishing much in a short amount of time. Once individuals have learned how to spend time most wisely, the lessons learned tend to stay with them for life. Time management begins with the creation of a time log, identifying the individual’s peak time, and practicing time-management tech- niques.

Self Test

114

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Which one of the following statements about discipline is NOT consistent with the “red-hot stove method” for implementing discipline?

A) The discipline is consistent. B) The discipline is impersonal. C) The discipline is immediate. D) The discipline is variable.

2) Which type of team includes individuals from different functional areas?

A) A cross-functional team B) A matrix team C) A think tank D) A workforce team

3) Georgette has been late by more than 25 minutes for 21 of the past 30 days. Today she is late 42 minutes. Company policy is that for however many minutes you are late, you must add the same amount to the end of the work- day. Georgette, however, works on a team that can’t start without everyone being present. Everyone else does arrive on time. What if anything is wrong here?

A) The company utilizes the red-hot stove disciplinary policy. B) The company policy violates the law. C) The company’s policy does not use progressive discipline. D) The company does not utilize a situational discipline policy.

4) Which of the following statements best defines the purpose of integrity tests?

A) Tests designed to measure an employee or job candidate’s ability to perform job-related tasks. B) Tests designed to measure an employee or job candidate’s aptitude. C) Tests designed to gauge an employee or job candidate’s honesty through ques- tions on ethical dilemmas. D) Tests designed to analyze an employee or job candidate’s handwriting as a gauge of their honesty.

5) Conformity that is considered to be legitimate could best be described using which of the following examples?

A) Dating policies for non-employees. B) Ankle bracelets used to monitor off-hour employee activities. C) Company smoking policies. D) Hobby activities for employees.

Self Test

115

Human Relations

6) According to your textbook, what percent of companies indicated in a recent Human Resource Management Association survey that they had conducted some form of employee surveillance?

A) 70% B) 60% C) 40% D) 50%

7) Empowering employees to organize and control their own work is called what?

A) Self-identity B) Self-discipline C) Self-management D) Self-discretion

8) Which of the following is not a step involved in the progressive disciplinary method?

A) Oral warning B) Termination C) Written warning D) Retraining

9) What should be the first step in a progressive disciplinary method?

A) Job termination B) Oral warning C) Written warning D) Suspension of employment

10) How might Rachel respond to a gossipy co-worker in her workplace?

A) Tell her own gossip stories. B) Listen attentively to their stories. C) Totally disregard anything they say. D) Avoid them and show no interest in what they are saying.

Answer Keys

116

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Conformity: is categorized as being either legitimate or nonlegitimate. Conformity can relate to thoughts or behavior and involve either on or off job situations.

Integrity Tests: honesty tests seeking to gauge integrity through questions on ethical di- lemmas.

Discipline: attempting to modify, improve, or correct employee behavior.

Progressive Discipline: the severity of disciplinary measures requiring punishment should increase each time an employee must be disciplined.

Organization Politics: the manner in which individuals obtain and hold onto power.

Reason: using facts and logic to influence others.

Coalition: gathering others to support your idea.

Influencers: people who actively try to persuade others.

Self-Management: people organizing, controlling, and directing their own work.

Time Management: is a methodology for accomplishing much in a short amount of time.

Answer Keys

117

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)D 2)A 3)C 4)C 5)C 6)B 7)C 8)D 9)B 10)D

Notes

118

Human Relations

Objectives

119

Human Relations

Chapter Number Eleven Motivation and Morale

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Question the importance of understanding the concepts of needs and motivation.

2. Determine the nature of four common learned needs.

3. Compare and contrast the motivational theories of Maslow, Alderfer, and Herzberg.

4. Scrutinize expectancy theory.

5. Distinguish how time and importance affect motivation.

6. Analyze the special role money plays in motivating people.

7. Detect and describe the principle factors that influence morale.

8. Recommend the various methods for measuring or evaluat- ing morale.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 351-383 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

120

Human Relations

The chapter discusses motivation and is meant to examine and explain major motiva- tional theories as they may be applied by or to you. Morale is also a part of the daily work environment. A better understanding of both may enable you to participate and respond to motivational and morale-building efforts in a manner more beneficial to you.

Key Terms

121

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Need:

Motivations:

Expectations:

Performance:

Hierarchy of Needs:

Behavioral Modification:

Level of Concern:

Morale:

Summary

122

Human Relations

Motivation is often seen as something employers do to employees. In Organizational Behavior, we discuss motivation theories to help explain the very behavior we are studying. Why?

• To motivate others • To understand how others try to motivate you • To help you better participate in your own motivation efforts or the efforts of those trying to motivate you.

As individuals understand motivation theories, they are better able to identify their manag- ers’ motivational efforts and have a clearer understanding of what factors and forces are motivating to them.

All individuals have needs, an unmet need creates tension, which drives us to choose a behavior with the aim of satisfying the need and thus removing the tension. Needs are referred to as motives because they move or motivate you to act. Motivation, then, involves those forces that surround an individual that work as stimulators to behave in a specific way. Needs can be what we call natural (food, water) – or – learned (approval, achieve- ment, competence, power). Learned needs, then, vary in terms of their intensity for differ- ent individuals.

Abraham Maslow is one of the best-known contributors to motivation research. Maslow’s guiding premise is that our human needs can be classified along a hierarchy of levels and that the needs of each lower level must be satisfied to some extent before the next highest level’s needs become important to attaining by the individual.

The hierarchy is divided into five levels ranging from basic, lower-level physiologic needs, to the higher-level social and psychological needs.

• Physiologic Needs – the most basic of all needs – food, shelter, water, clothing, and homeostasis. These needs are not typically considered to be an issue in our workplaces – our paychecks are thought to satisfy all of our physiologic needs. • Safety needs – our need to be safe and secure – physically and mentally • Belonging (social) needs – our need to be with other people • Status & self-esteem needs • Status – an extension of our social-belonging needs • Self-esteem – internal feelings of self-worth • Self-actualization – pushing ourselves to attain the highest level and to achieve the most we can – It’s the “Be all you can be” level.

Maslow’s hierarchies were not developed for purposes of motivating workers in an organi- zation. A study completed for purposes of applying Maslow’s concepts to working is what led to the development of a modified hierarchy.

Frederick Herzberg’s research focuses on two sets of factors or conditions that influence the behavior of individuals in organizations, hygiene (maintenance factors) and motivator – (satisfier factors). When hygiene factors are not adequate in the workplace, you will feel dissatisfaction. When the hygiene factors are adequate, you simply are not dissatisfied. When motivation factors are adequate in the workplace, they produce satisfaction. When the motivators are inadequate, there is no satisfaction.

Summary

123

Human Relations

Behavioral modification is the influencing of behavior through the utilization of positive or negative reinforcement techniques. Managers influence their employees through four principal techniques of reinforcement, including:

• Positive – encouraging a repetition of certain behavior • Escape or avoidance – intent is to move the individual towards escaping or avoid- ing a particular situation • Extinction – repeated nonreinforcement • Punishment – withholding rewards or outcomes from an individual based on past undesirable behavior

The methods are used for purposes of motivating employees by influencing their behav- ior. There are those who see this theory as a form of manipulating others – the reality is that it is a form of influencing behaviors, and thus attempting to modify behaviors through reinforcement.

The Equity Theory focuses on the concept of fairness. Employees compare the fairness of what their jobs require them to do (inputs) with what they receive in exchange for their efforts (outputs). This theory also deals with expectations – what individuals expect to get from their jobs. When their expectations are not met, dissatisfaction develops. Individu- als expect equity in relation to other employees. When equity is not there, employees take actions to bring them to a state of equity between what they put into their work and what they receive in return. Employees choose a behavior to attain equity because we are most comfortable when we see the outcomes from our work efforts equal to what others in the workplace are receiving from their work. (

Management sees money as a key motivating factor. The reality is money is merely a short- term motivator – our performance increases due to an increase in pay is limited. (We’ve already mentally spent that increase and are thinking about the next one.) Money does not make up for other aspects of a job that are unacceptable. There are those individuals who have left a high-paying job because other needs are not met.

Waiting for management to motivate you is not the answer. Understanding motivation is internal and involves your desire to want to perform to begin with. Individuals should fol- low the following action plan to take an active role in their individual motivation.

• Step 1 – Apply the motivational theories to yourself. • Step 2 – Determine how best to fulfill your needs. • Step 3 – Approach your manager and work together on your motivation.

Morale refers to employees’ attitudes toward either their employing organizations in gen- eral or toward specific job factors, such as supervision, fellow employees, and financial incentives. Needs influence the motivation of employees. Unsatisfied needs can adversely affect employee morale. Low morale can negatively affect productivity and quality man- agement. Morale is influenced by how employees perceive the organization and its objec- tives in relation to themselves.

Self Test

124

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) One of the best approaches to reinforcement a manager can use to reinforce positive behavior is called ________.

A) supportive conditioning B) negative reinforcement C) positive reinforcement D) extinction reinforcement

2) When speaking about motivation, ________ refer to something a person re- quires.

A) hopes B) needs C) beliefs D) expectations

3) Which statement best defines the term Behavior Modification?

A) The return of information about the result of a process or activity. B) The influencing of behavior through positive and negative reinforcement. C) The ability or capacity to perform or act effectively. D) The assignment of punishments.

4) Which statement best describes what is meant by the term Morale?

A) Individual feelings about the quality of life. B) Employee attitudes toward their employer and work environment. C) Conduct of correct and right behavior. D) Factors that get people to work happily.

5) John appears to have a strong need for approval in order to perform his job effectively. What does this indicate John is looking for?

A) Capacity to perform his assigned tasks effectively. B) Sufficient ability to complete his assigned tasks. C) Official consent or confirmation he is performing his job correctly D) Feeling he has accomplished the goals set for him by management.

Self Test

125

Human Relations

6) John appears to have a strong need for power in order to perform his job ef- fectively. What does this indicate John is looking for?

A) Feeling he has accomplished the goals set for him by management. B) Capacity to perform his assigned tasks effectively. C) Sufficient ability to complete his assigned tasks. D) Official consent or confirmation he is performing his job correctly.

7) Alderfer’s ERG Theory states that growth needs are focused on a combination of which of the following?

A) The desire for self-esteem and social belonging. B) The desire for physiologic and social belonging. C) The desire for existence and self-esteem. D) The desire for self-esteem and self-realization.

8) Which action would a manager take as an action of positive reinforcement?

A) Encourage the extinction of a behavior. B) Discourage the repetition of a behavior. C) Encourage the discontinuing of a behavior. D) Encourage the repetition of a behavior.

9) The motivation tool known as ________ is used by management to influence behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement.

A) behavior adjustment B) behavior extinction C) behavior reinforcement D) behavior modification

10) Joshua and Jordan have been assigned to work collaboratively on the devel- opment of a new electronic microfiche reader. The deadline for their project is rapidly approaching. Jordan has been working overtime to ensure their deadline is met. Joshua has consistently left promptly at 5 p.m. each day. Which motivation theory best describes tension Jordan is likely experiencing as deadline day approaches?

A) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory B) Reinforcement Theory C) Equity Theory D) Expectancy Theory

Answer Keys

126

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Need: a lack of something required.

Motivations: an incentive to act.

Expectations: the prospect of success or gain.

Performance: completion of a task or tasks; taking action in accordance with require- ments.

Hierarchy of Needs: a series of needs in which lower needs must be fulfilled (or nearly fulfilled) before the next higher need becomes evident.

Behavioral Modification: is the influencing of behavior through the utilization of positive or negative reinforcement techniques.

Level of Concern: holding people accountable for their actions.

Morale: employees’ attitudes toward either their employing organizations in general or to toward specific job factors.

Answer Keys

127

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)B 3)B 4)B 5)C 6)B 7)D 8)D 9)D 10)C

Notes

128

Human Relations

Objectives

129

Human Relations

Chapter Number Twelve Job Satisfaction and the Quality of Work Life

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Survey and describe quality of work life.

2. Distinguish and explain the common features of quality of work life.

3. Evaluate and describe the 14 factors that can impact and improve the quality of work life.

4. Explain the effects the work and social environments can have on the quality of work life.

5. Recommend innovative ways to work.

6. Determine work trends that can affect the quality of work life.

7. Rate and explain the factors affecting job satisfaction.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 386-426 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

130

Human Relations

The main goal of this chapter is to make you aware of the factors that comprise job satis- faction. There is much more to feeling satisfied about your job than simply liking the work and too few people understand this. Knowing what contributes to job satisfaction and the quality of work life will help with your current and future jobs.

Key Terms

131

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Outsourcing:

Job Enrichment:

Autonomy:

Empowerment:

Supervision:

Organizational Culture:

Seniority:

Compensation:

Expectations:

Summary

132

Human Relations

This chapter explores the relationship between job satisfaction factors related to the job itself, the work environment, and the individual performing the job. Today’s workers expect more from their job than just a paycheck and look for their work to be meaningful as well. Quality of work life is defined as how effectively the job environment meets the personal needs and values of employees. When these needs and expectations are not met, we see job dissatisfaction decrease.

Managerial concerns over the Quality of Work Life include:

• Needs and motivation – when needs are not met, motivation suffers, and a number of issues may result including decreased productivity, decreased quality of work, absences, tardiness, turnover, etc. • Shifting job trends – While industry trends have migrated from manufacturing to services, the monotony and working environments have not necessarily changed. We also see a tendency towards growth in part-time and temporary positions. Changes in the existing work environment can often be made to improve the quality of work life. Changing colors, saturation of color, color coding, and the ad- dition of decoration and art can all be used to improve the aesthetic quality of the physical environment.

Color has been shown to influence people. Color can be used in the work environment to send a message or simply to act as a background. Using dark red around fire alarms and equipment is an example of using color to send a message as is using yellow to alert people that an area is dangerous. Personalization may be allowed to enhance a work area independent of color usage and aesthetics. Some companies rigidly control the amount of personalization permitted with some allowing none at all, and it is sometimes difficult to understand the reasoning.

While technological increases have greatly enhanced the ability to be productive and improve communications with others in local and far-away geographies, this technology has also increased the demands on workers far beyond the traditional 9 to 5 workday. Managers must consider the impact of the 24/7 workforce on the worker’s ability to seek a balance between work and personal life demands.

Outsourcing is the moving of work from one company to another or one country to another, as well as downsizing, layoffs, and reengineering are significant threats to a worker’s qual- ity of work life. This impact is just as relevant to those who remain employed and thus are left behind and those out of work.

As managers and employees work towards improving quality of work life, there are many ways to do so. Improving quality of work life typically results in an increase in productiv- ity. Even if that is not the result, the company does gain in other areas, including in- creased attendance, increased morale, etc.

Methods that can be used to improve quality of work life:

• Job enrichment • Job enlargement • Vertical loading • Horizontal loading

Summary

133

Human Relations

• Core job dimensions • Cross-training • Feedback and reinforcement • Empowerment • Well pay and floating holiday • Child and elder care • Work and social environment • Ergonomics • Wellness programs • Aesthetics and personalization

Additional approaches to improving productivity and morale are:

• Production-based compensation plans • Flextime • Flexplace • Compressed workweek • Contingent employment • Job sharing

The early parts of the chapter presented factors that impact quality of work life, the latter portion of the chapter focuses on those factors that impact job satisfaction. These factors are divided into three main categories: internal factors, external factors and individual fac- tors.

• Internal factors • The work itself • Job variety • Autonomy • Goal determination • Feedback and recognition • External factors • Achievement • Role ambiguity and role conflict • Opportunity • Job security • Social interaction • Supervision • Organizational culture • Work schedules • Seniority • Compensation • Individual factors • Commitment • Expectations • Job involvement • Effort/reward ratio • Influence of coworkers • Opinions of others • Personal outlook • Age

Self Test

134

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) The aspects in the workplace that work to improve an employee’s satisfaction contribute to the employee’s ________.

A) job feedback B) quality of work life C) job time standards D) organizational redesign

2) ________ involves providing employees with higher degrees of involvement and greater authority to make decisions. A) Task significance B) Empowerment C) Classical leadership D) Job rotation

3) When Jose looks at the jobs his brothers and sisters have and those of his neighbors, he feels proud. His job seems so much better, more rewarding, and more fulfilling. What individual job satisfaction factor accounts for Jose’s attitude?

A) Job involvement B) Coworker influence C) Opinions of others D) Comparisons

4) ________ is a term used to describe multiskilling or teaching workers more than one job.

A) Cross-training B) Autonomy C) Job changes D) Empowerment

5) With the practice of ________ employees are allowed to choose what time within a predetermined window they can begin their normal workday.

A) flexplace B) job sharing C) compressed workweek D) flextime

Self Test

135

Human Relations

6) Grace and Jeannie participate in a job sharing program with their employer. This benefit is best described as ________.

A) workers who may start work when they wish B) nonpermanent/temporary workers C) two workers dividing one job D) employees provided with higher degrees of involvement

7) Which statement best describes job variety?

A) The required skills and knowledge needed to perform a job. B) The freedom employees have to establish their own work goals and determine their own criteria for success. C) The level of control employees have over their work. D) The feedback an employee receives from their job performance.

8) Which statement best describes role conflict?

A) An employee’s future internal and external job prospects. B) An employee’s multiple job roles that interfere with one another. C) An employee’s assurance of continued future employment. D) An employee not knowing what their job is or their place within the firm.

9) Which statement best describes recognition in the workplace?

A) The required skills employees need to perform their job. B) The noticeable acknowledgment of an employee’s performance. C) The level of control employees have over their work. D) The freedom employees have to establish their own work goals.

10) What does the term commitment refer to?

A) How important a person’s job is in his or her life. B) The comparison of rewards someone receives from their work and efforts. C) How carefully someone has researched, selected, and prepared for a job. D) The needs people believe a job can fulfill.

Answer Keys

136

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Outsourcing: hiring people from outside a company to perform work that had been per- formed from inside the company.

Job Enrichment: adding depth to a job to increase motivation and interest in performing the job.

Autonomy: freedom to make decision; the ability to work without supervision; the level of control people have over their work.

Empowerment: providing employees with higher degrees of involvement and greater au- thority to make decisions.

Supervision: the managing or overseeing of someone.

Organizational Culture: the collective beliefs, values, and attitudes of the organization.

Seniority: the time spent working the same job or working for the same employer.

Compensation: the money, benefits, and rewards of employment.

Expectations: the needs people believe a job can fulfill.

Answer Keys

137

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)B 2)B 3)D 4)A 5)D 6)C 7)A 8)B 9)B 10)C

Notes

138

Human Relations

Unit 3 Examination Instructions

139

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Three Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and follow the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writing standards and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course.

Human Relations

Unit 3 Examination

140

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Walt assigned a group of several employees to be responsible for attaining a departmental goal. In effect, Walt has formed a ________.

A) control group B) formal group C) nominal group D) none of the above

2) Deb consistently argues against the consensus of other members of her group in an effort to probe for weaknesses in the group’s current position. Deb’s role in the group is that of being a ________.

A) manager B) leader C) devil’s advocate D) cultural advocate

3) Role ________ involves the differences between one’s group role and one’s other roles in the workplace.

A) Overload B) Conflict C) Reduction D) Ambiguity

4) Role ________ involves having group or team assignments that are too great and too much for one individual to handle.

A) Overload B) Ambiguity C) Reduction D) Conflict

5) Which statement best describes group attractiveness?

A) Behaving in a way that directly affects goal accomplishment. B) Attracting others to the group through an emotional appeal. C) Generating interest and demonstrating value to others so they will choose to join a group. D) Causing confusion over roles in a group and their boundaries

Unit 3 Examination

141

Human Relations

6) ________ committees are established to handle specific situations and then dissolve once the task is accomplished.

A) Ad hoc B) Quality circle C) Task force D) Standing

7) The group members in Barney’s group are so tight they have stopped express ing their individual opinions and considering input from others outside of the group. Which statement best describes the groupthink that has now impacted the behavior of the group?

A) Consensus that occurs within organizations. B) Sharing responsibility to the point that accountability is difficult to ascertain. C) Negative results from intragroup pressures within group decision making. D) Division of authority and responsibility that occurs in behavioral and flat orga- nizations.

8) Which stage of group formation occurs when group members are focused on becoming acquainted with each other?

A) Performing B) Forming C) Norming D) Conforming

9) Which stage of group formation occurs when group members are facing con- flict over the direction the team will take and the leadership within the group?

A) Conforming B) Performing C) Storming D) Forming

10) Managers utilize ________ as they attempt to modify, improve, and correct employee behavior.

A) discipline B) groups C) organizational politics D) supervision

Unit 3 Examination

142

Human Relations

11) Conformity that is considered to be legitimate could best be described using which of the following examples?

A) Ankle bracelets used to monitor off-hour employee activities. B) Hobby activities for employees. C) Dating policies for non-employees. D) Company smoking policies.

12) Human resource managers commonly believe their companies have the right to use which of the following employee surveillance activities?

A) Surveillance B) Information collection C) Employee testing D) All of the above

13) ________ testing involves analyzing handwriting samples as a means of char acter testing.

A) HIV B) Graphology C) Personality D) Integrity

14) According to your textbook, what percent of companies indicated in a recent Human Resource Management Association survey that they had conducted some form of employee surveillance?

A) 40% B) 60% C) 50% D) 70%

15) What should be the first step in a progressive disciplinary method?

A) Suspension of employment B) Oral warning C) Written warning D) Job termination

Unit 3 Examination

143

Human Relations

16) When a penalty is imposed because of a specific undesirable behavior, this can be referred to as ________.

A) positive reinforcement B) extinction C) negative reinforcement D) punishment

17) Homer has a boring job with no chance for advancement or personal growth. He mastered his job years ago and doesn’t feel he is accomplishing much. The money is fine and Homer has a great boss. Homer can’t really complain about the benefits or working conditions either. According to Herzberg, what does Homer feel?

1. Dissatisfaction 2. No Dissatisfaction 3. Satisfaction 4. No Satisfaction

A) 2 and 4 B) 2 and 3 C) 1 and 4 D) 3

18) John appears to have a strong need for approval in order to perform his job ef- fectively. What does this indicate John is looking for?

A) Official consent or confirmation he is performing his job correctly B) Feeling he has accomplished the goals set for him by management. C) Capacity to perform his assigned tasks effectively. D) Sufficient ability to complete his assigned tasks.

19) John appears to have a strong need for competence in order to perform his job effectively. What does this indicate John is looking for?

A) Capacity to perform his assigned tasks effectively. B) Feeling he has accomplished the goals set for him by management. C) Official consent or confirmation he is performing his job correctly. D) Sufficient ability to complete his assigned tasks.

20) Joshua and Jordan have been assigned to work collaboratively on the devel- opment of a new electronic microfiche reader. The deadline for their project is rapidly approaching. Jordan has been working overtime to ensure their deadline is met. Joshua has consistently left promptly at 5 p.m. each day. Which motivation theory best describes tension Jordan is likely experiencing as deadline day approaches?

Unit 3 Examination

144

Human Relations

A) Expectancy Theory B) Reinforcement Theory C) Equity Theory D) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

21) When Zoe was in high school, she had no idea what she wanted to do to make a living. After three years of college she still had no clue, so she quit and took a job as a cashier at Homer’s Depot. It pays a few bills, but she really can’t get excited about it. She is really hoping there is a coming downsizing and she is offered a few weeks severance pay so she can take a vacation. What job satisfaction factor best explains Zoe’s attitude?

A) Her expectations B) Her age C) Her comparisons D) Her level of commitment

22) When Jose looks at the jobs his brothers and sisters have and those of his neighbors, he feels proud. His job seems so much better, more rewarding, and more fulfilling. What individual job satisfaction factor accounts for Jose’s attitude?

A) Opinions of others B) Job involvement C) Coworker influence D) Comparisons

23) Which statement best describes job variety?

A) The feedback an employee receives from their job performance. B) The freedom employees have to establish their own work goals and determine their own criteria for success. C) The required skills and knowledge needed to perform a job. D) The level of control employees have over their work.

24) Which statement best describes role ambiguity?

A) An employee not knowing what their job is or their place within the firm. B) An employee’s multiple job roles that interfere with one another. C) An employee’s future internal and external job prospects. D) An employee’s assurance of continued future employment.

25) Which statement best describes achievement in the workplace?

A) The noticeable acknowledgement of an employee’s performance.

Unit 3 Examination

145

Human Relations

B) The required skills employees need to perform their job C) The success an employee has with their job. D) The freedom employees have to establish their own work goals.

Unit 3 Examination

146

Human Relations

Written Assignment for Unit Three

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. What are social norms? In what ways might they make a supervisor’s job easier? More difficult?

2. What is the significance of the red-hot stove rule?

3. List and describe the five extrinsic factors in Hunter’s theory of motivation.

You Can Do It

147

Human Relations

Unit 3 is done! You’re close to the finish line and we’re cheering you on to victory!

Objectives

148

Human Relations

Chapter Number Thirteen The Dynamics of Change

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Assess the importance of anticipating the need for change.

2. Distinguish the major causes of employee resistance to change.

3. Detect how resistance to change is shown.

4. Appraise the three-step process for change.

5. Discover the benefits of participating in change.

6. Determine the methods for accomplishing change.

7. Recommend six methods for coping with change.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 430-457 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

149

Human Relations

While organizations are constantly undergoing or contemplating change, this is also some- thing most people do not like to do. The intention here is to examine not just the ways of making change but also the root cause of resistance to change and the different ways people demonstrate resistance to change. Knowing why and how people show resistance to change is important in order to differentiate resistance to change from other behaviors and reduce resistance. The discussion of methods of change is meant to help those involved in change as well as those directing change.

Key Terms

150

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Equilibrium:

Misunderstanding:

Phariseeism:

Regression:

Change Management:

Refreezing:

Management by Objectives:

Organizational Development:

Summary

151

Human Relations

The chapter focus is on the examination of change from a dual perspective: 1) Those who introduce and implement the change 2) Those who are obligated to change. The reality is that in today’s workplaces the only assured constant is change! Individuals in their work- places, however, continually resist change. What we also tend to see in our workplaces are managers who recognize the need for a change only when conditions are already in a state of crisis. The need to change should be anticipated and managers should attempt to implement the necessary changes before a state of crisis develops.

Knowing the natural tendency for an individual is to resist change, perhaps we would be better served if our focus was on understanding why individuals resist change and how this resistance may be behaviorally displayed in our workplaces.

• Why do individuals resist change? • Personal attitudes • Financial reasons • Alterations in the informal organization • Inertia • Lack of recognition of need • Fear of the unknown • Lack of trust • Revenge • Surprise • Poor timing • Poor approach • Misunderstanding • Insufficient need • Phariseeism • How is this resistance to change behaviorally displayed? • Absenteeism • Decreased productivity • Regression • Resignation • Transfer • Sabotage

We see great pressures for change today. Books, articles, websites are developed on an almost daily basis about this topic. It seems if we aren’t changing, we aren’t prepared for tomorrow. However, change needs to be made carefully and the valid need for change needs to be assessed carefully. Our organizations must not only benefit from a proposed change, but benefit enough to make the effort worthwhile.

Change management is the manner in which our managers introduce change – These ef- forts largely determine the success of their efforts and change efforts. The text provides a listing of considerations that managers should review when introducing a change.

• Recognize the 3-step nature of the change process. • Stress the usefulness of the change. • Be empathetic toward the feelings of those affected. • Make certain that employees understand the nature and purpose of the change. • Allow for employee participation when possible. • Stress benefits. • Provide economic guarantees where possible.

Summary

152

Human Relations

• Consider timing. • Introduce the change gradually where possible. • Introduce the change on a trial basis.

Change can be seen as a 3-step process:

• Unfreeze – stop the old way of doing something before the new way is started • Change – learn new ways and habits so that the desired behavior can be em- ployed. People cannot change to a new way of doing something if they don’t know what that new way is. • Refreeze – apply what has been learned – There must be a continuous attention on the change until it is completely and thoroughly implemented.

Larger scale changes involve those changes of an entire unit or organization. When a large number of people and other resources are involved, six steps will need to be followed instead of the three previously discussed.

• Step 1 – determine the necessity • Step 2 – find the movers and shakers • Step 3 – communicate the post-change vision and change plan • Step 4 – clear the path • Step 5 – find the good and give the feedback • Step 6 – follow through Any manager or other in an organization attempting to introduce change into a work envi- ronment must take special efforts to work towards the success of the change initiative.

Eight main methods are frequently discussed as methods for accomplishing change in organizations. The author provides a discussion of each of the examples in the text. Six strategies individuals may employ or adopt when working to cope with change in their work environments include:

• Acceptance – receiving the change and accepting it as fact • Learning – becoming familiar with the change and increasing your understanding of its benefits • Utilization – using and implementing the change • Participation – taking part in the change decision-making process • Support and assistance – advocating the change to other people and offering as- sistance with teaching others about the change • Negotiation – attempting to change a part of the change

Self Test

153

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Which type of change methodology involves the manager and workers working together?

A) New person B) Workers quit their jobs hoping the change will be reversed and they get re- hired. C) Participation D) Organization development

2) In change management, what is acceptance?

A) Becoming thoroughly familiar with a change. B) Using or implementing change. C) Taking part in the decision-making process that leads to a change. D) Receiving change and regarding it as fact.

3) In change terms, what does participation mean?

A) Becoming thoroughly familiar with a change. B) Using or implementing the change. C) Taking part in the decision-making process that leads to a change. D) Receiving change and regarding it as fact.

4) Which of the following is the first key step when implementing a large-scale change?

A) Communicate the vision B) Clear the path C) Determine necessity D) Follow through

5) Which of the following methods teaches employees to use new methods in- volved with a change implementation?

A) Utilization B) Training C) Directive D) Trial period

Self Test

154

Human Relations

6) Brenda and her manager, Tori, met yesterday to mutually establish goals for Brenda to work towards accomplishing during the next year. This method of accomplishing change is known as ________.

A) management by wandering around B) management by negotiation C) management by objectives D) management by learning

7) Joel is more apt to have employees buy in to his proposed new attendance policy if he asks for employee ________.

A) learning B) utilization C) participation D) development

8) A group process focused on designing a change intended to improve the ef- fectiveness of the culture of an organization is known as ________.

A) organizational development B) organizational design C) organizational effectiveness D) organizational climate

9) Ted was excited to begin his new job as Assistant Vice President of Sales—- that is, until his first day on the job!! Turns out his employer has told him he is now responsible for telling the employees about changes in the company’s benefit programs. Which method for accomplishing change is his employer using?

A) Directives B) Training C) Participation D) New person

10) Which of the following is typically the number one reason people tend to resist change?

A) Enthusiasm B) Routine C) Fear D) Excitement

Answer Keys

155

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Equilibrium: a stable, balanced, unchanging system.

Misunderstanding: when people do not understand a change or its explanation.

Phariseeism: the hypocritical adherence to the letter of the law while missing the spirit of the law.

Regression: workers pretending to have forgotten their skills so that they perform at the level of new, untrained workers.

Change Management: is the manner in which our managers introduce change.

Refreezing: regularly applying what one has learned.

Management by Objectives: managers and subordinates mutually establish objec- tives and develop specific plans for their accomplishment.

Organizational Development: a group problems-solving process intended to bring about planned and orderly change for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of the entire culture of an organization.

Answer Keys

156

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)D 3)C 4)C 5)B 6)B 7)C 8)A 9)D 10)C

Notes

157

Human Relations

Objectives

158

Human Relations

Chapter Number Fourteen Leadership

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Discover leadership.

2. Compare and contrast authority, responsibility, and account- ability.

3. Distinguish where power comes from.

4. Differentiate between leadership and management.

5. Recommend traits and behavior sets of leaders.

6. Define and differentiate between transformation and contin- gency leadership methods.

7. Evaluate Theory X and Theory Y leaders.

8. Survey the major styles of leadership.

9. Determine the skills that are fundamental for effective man- agement.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 459-487 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

159

Human Relations

The main goal of this chapter is to introduce you to the concept of leadership. Today more than ever, leaders are found outside the ranks of management. No matter what your posi- tion, you may be called upon to lead a group, small or large. This chapter will demonstrate how you can begin to develop the necessary skills.

Key Terms

160

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Leadership:

Management:

Authority:

Responsibility:

Accountability:

Power:

Charismatic Leaders:

Transformational Leaders:

Autocratic Style:

Free-Rein Leadership:

Summary

161

Human Relations

The focus of this chapter is on the study of leadership and the ability of leaders in the workplace to influence the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of a goal. There are over 40,000 articles, books, resources dedicated to the topic of leadership. It has become the hot topic of today as managers and leaders in the workplace seek a magic formula for attaining success. Our focus in OB is on understanding the impact leadership has on workplace behavior and on the development of our leadership skills.

Leadership is the ability to influence the activities of others, through the process of com- munication, toward the attainment of a goal. • Key elements in this definition include: • The ability to INFLUENCE the behavior of others. • Providing those others with DIRECTION. • Direction taking place through COMMUNICATION.

Leadership is: • Dealing directly with people and their behavior. • Initiating actions and expediting change. • Gaining voluntary participation of others. • Moving people toward a vision. • Leaders may or may not manage. • Management is: • Planning, organizing, coordinating, leading, and controlling the activities of oth- ers. • Focusing on rational productivity. • Getting the job done on a daily basis. • Managers may or may not lead.

A formal leader is assigned or transferred into their position. Formal leaders, therefore, are depicted on a firm’s organizational chart. Formal leadership involves the following three terms: authority, responsibility and Accountability.

Power is the ability to command resources and comes from one of two sources: personal and institutional – comes from the organization. It is quite common for an individual to have power from both sources. There is also personal power and institutional power.

To function as a leader, you must have an emotional appeal that instills in other people the desire to follow you. Leaders are able to lead only when they can effectively influence their followers over an extended period of time. Leaders are less likely to achieve the ob- jectives of their organizations if they don’t also meet the needs of their followers.

Charismatic leaders are those who influence their followers as a result of having char- ismatic authority. They have power and influence over others because of their ability to inspire personal trust and confidence. Examples of charismatic leaders include JFK, Ron- ald Reagan and Barack Obama. Transformational leaders are defined by their accomplish- ments. Those achievements are looked at over their individual characteristics.

The premise of contingency and situational leadership is that leadership may need to change depending on the situation the leader is faced with. • Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • Leaders have a style that cannot be changed.

Summary

162

Human Relations

• Find the style of each leader and assign that leader to a situation that needs or matches that style. • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Model • Leaders can change their leadership methods. • The theory prescribes the method needed for each situation. • Path-Goal Theory • A manager can and should adapt their leadership style to the circumstances at hand.

Theory X Attitudes: Most employees dislike work and will avoid it whenever they can. Because most people dislike work, they have to be pushed, closely supervised, and threatened with punishment to get them to help achieve the objectives of the organiza- tion. Most people are basically lazy, have little ambition, prefer to avoid responsibility, and desire security as a major goal. The typical work is self-centered and has little concerns for organizational goals.

Theory Y Attitudes: Most people find work as natural as play and rest, and their attitude toward work is related to their experiences with it. People don’t have to be threatened with punishment to be motivated to help an organization achieve its goals. They will be some- what self-directed when they are able to relate to the objectives of the organization. Within a favorable organizational culture, the average person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility.

Derived X Theory: While your attitudes may point to Theory Y, your past experiences with a follower or situation may have shaped you towards Theory X behaviors. Traditional lead- ership motivates through fear and believes employees must be forced to cooperate and perform their jobs.

There is not one approach to leadership that applies to every situation. There are three principal forms of philosophies and styles -autocratic style, participative style and free- rein style. There isn’t “one” best style of leadership. The best style for a given situation depends on the situations, the type of followers and the type of leader. To be an effective leader, you may need to tailor your style to fit these variables.

Effective leadership is a talent and activity that is learned and developed. Competent lead- ers develop the following types of skills: technical, human resource management, concep- tual and trust-building. Leadership skills take time – Effective leadership does not happen overnight. Leadership is the hot topic in management these days. Many times when one individual attains success for an organization, there is a tendency for others to want to du- plicate the traits, skills, or behaviors of the successful leader. This is not often possible.

Self Test

163

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) When a leader allows followers to have a say in what’s decided, this type of leader can be referred to as a(n) ________.

A) democratic-participative leader B) classical leader C) task-oriented leader D) autocratic leader

2) A ________ leader gives their followers total autonomy to make decisions that affect them.

A) free-reign leader B) directive leader C) task leader D) autocratic leader

3) Claire is obligated to perform her assigned work and to make certain that oth- ers she may delegate work to also perform their tasks in a prescribed way. This obligation is known as ________.

A) power B) authority C) responsibility D) accountability

4) Which term involves the answerability an employee has to his or her manager?

A) Responsibility B) Power C) Authority D) Accountability

5) Which of the following statements best defines the concept of traditional leadership?

A) Authoritarian leadership where others are simply told how to follow. B) Applying positive techniques in leadership. C) Utilizing fear and intimidation to influence employees D) Utilizing positive recognition to accomplish organizational objectives.

Self Test

164

Human Relations

6) Which of the following statements best defines the concept of behavioral leadership?

A) Authoritarian leadership where others are simply told how to follow. B) Applying positive techniques in leadership. C) Utilizing fear and intimidation to influence employees. D) Utilizing punishment to accomplish organizational objectives.

7) Bierman manages 11 employees. Ten of them are adequate to slightly better than adequate, but one has to be watched frequently if any work is to be ob tained from him. Bierman feels he can’t discriminate in any way in his treat- ment of his 11 employees, so he has decided on strict and tight controls for everyone. In other words, he will no longer trust anybody. What is this called?

A) Improving quality of work life B) Behavior modification C) Derived Theory X D) Leadership

8) Mohamed is being placed in charge of a group of union factory workers. The union contract is strictly adhered to and will allow Mohamed virtually no lee- way to try to lead. It is even extremely difficult to fire someone because the union must approve a replacement and they almost always just send the fired worker back. Mohamed is not allowed to discipline anyone because a griev- ance is almost always filed that creates a huge amount of work for him, his boss, and his boss’ boss. Which of these does Mohamed not have?

A) Accountability B) Authority C) Responsibility D) Leadership

9) Which leadership style involves the leader serving mainly in a resource capac- ity?

A) Autocratic B) Participative C) Free-rein D) Democratic

10) ________ flows upward, while ________ flows downward.

A) Accountability; authority B) Authority; responsibility C) Responsibility; accountability D) Authority; accountability

Answer Keys

165

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Leadership: is the ability to influence the activities of others, through the process of com- munication, toward the attainment of a goal.

Management: includes the activity of leadership but may also involve nonbehavioral func- tions that do not directly or immediately affect others.

Authority: is the right or power delegated to people in organizations to make decisions, act, and direct others to act.

Responsibility: is not a right; it is a duty. It is the obligation someone has to perform as- signed work or to make certain that someone else performs it in a prescribed way.

Accountability: is the answerability of an employee to his or her boss.

Power: is the ability to command resources.

Charismatic Leaders: are those who influence their followers as a result of having charis- matic authority.

Transformational Leaders: are defined by their accomplishments.

Autocratic Style: authoritarian leadership; leadership whereby others are simply told how to follow.

Free-Rein Leadership: also called laissez-faire leadership; an absence of direct leadership; group members work out their own techniques for accomplishing goals.

Answer Keys

166

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)A 2)A 3)C 4)D 5)C 6)B 7)C 8)B 9)C 10)A

Notes

167

Human Relations

Objectives

168

Human Relations

Chapter Number Fifteen Stress

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Investigate stress and stressors.

2. Predict and define causes of stress.

3. Assess and explain the reactions to work-related distress.

4. Diagram and explain the three stages of stress.

5. Measure the relationship between frustration and stress.

6. Investigate burnout and explain its causes and cures.

7. Propose recommendations for general stress management.

8. Recommend methods for managing career-related stress.

Instructions to Students • Read pages 491-519 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

169

Human Relations

This chapter introduces the topics of stress and stress management to show the effects stress can have on you. It also presents an overview of the main methods used in cop- ing with stress. This chapter will discuss the nature of stress; typical reactions to stress, including burnout; and various proven techniques for managing stress.

Key Terms

170

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Stress:

Stressors:

Distress:

Eustress:

Frustration:

Yield Point:

Social Drinker:

Alcoholic:

Kossen’s Law:

Summary

171

Human Relations

The focus of the chapter is on the topic of stress and stress management. When studying organizational behavior it is useful to see the relationship between stress and the effects of stress on behavior and your ability to cope with stress forces in the workplace. Stress is the result of the pressures, demands, and changes that exist in our environment. Stress is the end result and how we manage that stress determines how the stressors impact us behaviorally, physically, and mentally.

Not all stress is harmful – we need some stress in order to survive. Stress is the body’s nonspecific responses to a demand. Stressors are anything that produces a demand. Stress is classified in two types- Distress – the harmful, disease-producing stress and Eu- stress – (you-stress) the beneficial and necessary stress. Both types of stress include two variations: Physical and Mental.

Understanding the type of stress involved is important, but so is our response to the stres- sor • Fight – Catatoxic • We go on full alert and prepare to defend ourselves • Our blood pressure, pulse, and breathing increase markedly as the body prepares for an all-out defense. • Flight – Syntoxic • Controlling our response to the distress • Don’t become angry or irritated, but focus on how we will respond without agita- tion

How we respond to stressors is key not only for our mental and physical well being, but also for understanding the impact stressors have on behavior in the organization. Reac- tions to work-induced distress include: • Affective – these reactions are emotional in nature – anger, hostility, yelling, etc. • Behavioral – these reactions involve our actions, which can be active or passive in nature • Physical – involve physiologic changes The reality is our reactions may involve one, two, or three of these categories or a combi- nation of reactions from one of the categories.

Frustration is the feeling of insecurity and dissatisfaction arising from unresolved prob- lems or unsatisfied needs and wants. We utilize adjustive reactions to help our frustrated selves adjust to an unresolved situation. Our reactions to frustration then are defense mechanisms that enable us to deal more effectively with the normal stresses and strains of every day living. • Rationalization – we attempt to give a plausible or rational explanation for a spe- cific or undesirable behavior • Compensation – we exert extra effort in an attempt to overcome the insecure feel- ings of inadequacy we may have • Negativism – we subconsciously resist other people or objects • Resignation – we quit, give up, or withdraw from our involvement in a particular situation • Repression – we exclude certain experiences or feelings from our consciousness

Summary

172

Human Relations

• Pseudostupidity – we consciously attempt to give the impression of being forgetful or inept • Obsessive thinking – we are so focused on the situation we enlarge it way out of proportions • Displacement – we direct our focus and feelings onto something other than the main source of our frustration • Conversion – we express our frustrations in bodily symptoms of pain or malfunc- tion

Burnout is a result we see more of today as our workforce transitions into 24/7 demands. Burnout is the complete exhaustion of a person’s physical and intellectual resources and is caused by an individual’s excessive efforts to attain unrealistic, job-related goals. Sys- tems of burnout can be any of the following:

• Become apathetic toward work responsibilities • Engage in the flight syndrome • Feel that they are working harder and accomplishing less • Feel irritable • Develop physical pain • Withdraw from friends and loved ones • Lose their sense of humor • Feel tired much of the time • Consume greater quantities of alcohol than in the past

Some guidelines for avoiding employee tension and stress are:

• Don’t set impossibly high goals in the mistaken belief they will make employees try more earnestly. • Don’t criticize employees for not spending enough time at their desks getting work done after you’ve called frequent, lengthy meetings. • Don’t continually take employees off one project to work on others, requiring them to juggle numerous projects at the same time. Often it is better to allow them to concentrate and finish one project at a time. • Don’t bring up employees’ past mistakes when you are correcting them for a cur- rent mistake.

Again, not all stress is bad and some stress is necessary. Some guidelines for managing career related stress:

• Develop readily attainable goals. • Select a satisfying occupation. • Take the “workaholic” cure – learn how to unwind. • Don’t succumb to Parkinson’s Law – work levels expand to increase the time you have available to complete them. • Don’t succumb to Kossen’s Law – additional activities, tasks, responsibilities, and interruptions seem to come your way.

Self Test

173

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) The factors that cause stress are known as ________.

A) personal factors B) stressors C) impactors D) organizational factors

2) Employees who abuse alcohol or drugs are often called ________.

A) non-exempt employees B) substance abusers C) problem indicators D) habit personnel

3) Which type of distress is produced from the amount of work demanded, the time allotted to complete work, repetition, or the amount of concentration required?

A) Work pace control distress B) Qualitative demand distress C) Participation distress D) Quantitative demand distress

4) An employee may experience an affective reaction in an attempt to cope with or react to stress in the workplace. These reactions are best described in which of the following statements?

A) Reactions arising from emotions rather than from conscious thoughts. B) Reactions involving a decrease in activity, apathy, or lethargy. C) Reactions arising from anatomical and physiological changes caused by stress. D) Reactions involving changes in a person’s actions as a result of stress.

5) Which of the following refers to the warning stage indicating an individual is nearing their stress threshold?

A) Elastic limit B) Rupture point C) Yield point D) Flash point

Self Test

174

Human Relations

6) What term refers to the stress reaction which results in severe and permanent mental and physical damage when the stress is not properly managed?

A) Rupture point B) Yield point C) Flash point D) Elastic limit

7) What is pseudostupidity?

A) Redirecting pent-up feelings toward others B) Obsessive thinking C) Intentionally forgetting something as a means of avoiding it D) Enlarging problems out of all realistic proportions

8) In psychological or stress terms, what is conversion?

A) Expressing frustration in bodily symptoms of pain or malfunction B) Redirecting pent-up feelings towards others C) Unintentionally forgetting something as a means of avoiding it D) Enlarging problems out of all realistic proportions

9) What is the act or practice of envisioning things in a perfect or idyllic form?

A) Naiveté B) Idealism C) Optimism D) Pessimism

10) Daryl’s job is to discipline inmates at a correctional facility. Lately, Daryl has been having stomach problems and trouble sleeping. What is his distress most likely caused by?

A) Chronic stress B) Work pace control C) Quantitative demand distress D) Work role distress

Answer Keys

175

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Stress: is the result of the pressures, demands, and changes that exist in our environment.

Stressors: are anything that produces a demand.

Distress: the harmful, disease-producing stress.

Eustress: the beneficial and necessary stress.

Frustration: is the feeling of insecurity and dissatisfaction arising from unresolved prob- lems or unsatisfied needs and wants.

Yield Point: is the stage that reveals itself as a slight change from “normal” behavior. We will reach this point from time to time.

Social Drinker: drinks when he or she wishes to.

Alcoholic: drinks because he or she needs to.

Kossen’s Law: states that regardless of your state of organization new tasks and inter- ruptions will seek you out, thereby expanding your responsibilities, commitments, and workload.

Answer Keys

176

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)B 2)B 3)D 4)A 5)A 6)B 7)C 8)A 9)B 10)A

Notes

177

Human Relations

Objectives

178

Human Relations

Chapter Number Sixteen Challenges and Opportunities

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Recognize the increased concern of organizations for global organizational behavior issues.

2. Discover the need to understand differences in customs among different cultures and list examples of variations in customs.

3. Assess the importance of multicultural issues to organiza- tions.

4. Differentiate between prejudice and discrimination.

5. Detect and list examples of discrimination laws.

6. Examine the challenges facing women in today’s workplace.

7. Inspect the problems disabled workers face.

8. Evaluate laws affecting disabled workers.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 524-554 of your textbook

• Reference: The Human Side of Organiza- tions, 10th Edition Author: Michael Drafke

Overview

179

Human Relations

The goal of this chapter is to present the major challenges facing organizations today that have not been mentioned in other chapters. This does not make them less important. Some are less resolved, while others are in earlier stages of being recognized as a chal- lenge or problem. These challenges may also be viewed as opportunities for the astute individual.

Key Terms

180

Human Relations

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

Customs:

Culture Shock:

Expatriates:

Ethnocentrism:

Affirmative Action:

Mommy Track:

Glass Ceiling:

Summary

181

Human Relations

This chapter focuses on the major challenges facing organizations today that were not cov- ered in previous chapters. These challenges not only impact the firm’s cultures, but also the behavior that takes place within them. Challenges in today’s organizations are many including; Global OB, Multiculturalism and diversity and Legal discrimination.

Concepts covered so far in the class and text may need to be adapted for those organiza- tions and management/employee teams who are employed in global operations. Each organization has its own organizational culture, but the employees employed in that orga- nization also come from a variety of diverse cultures. This creates a challenge for manag- ers who must learn to embrace cultural values that may be drastically different from their own. Some challenges for management when working with global operations and employ- ees:

• Customs • Language and communication styles • Attitudes toward time • Workforce • Differences in pay scales • Labor laws • Ethical standards • Political climate • Variations in foreign exchange rates

We live in a society more multicultural than ever before. By 2014 nearly 16 percent of the workforce will be Hispanic, 5 percent will be Asians, and 12 percent will be Black. Preju- dice is related to attitudes. Discrimination is the result of prejudice. Attitudes can cause prejudice, which may then lead to discrimination.

EEOC and Title VII prohibit discrimination based on: • Religion • Age • Gender • National ethnicity • Disabilities • Color

However, when the firm can demonstrate a work duty, qualification, etc. are BFOQ – bona fide occupational qualification – the firm is not committing a discriminatory act. Firms additionally may have an exception based on testing requirement exception and seniority system exception.

Culturalization has had an impact on the role women should play versus their role in the workplace. Mommy track refers to the choice a woman has to make between a career or motherhood. Many firms are fortunately realizing it is possible for a woman to be both and be successful at both, but there is still much more progress to be made in this area.

Sexual harassment -“The unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individu- al’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.”

Summary

182

Human Relations

Violence in the workplace is growing and all companies therefore should have a workplace violence program aimed at prevention. Labor shortage is also a big issue as Baby Boomers are starting to retire. This will lead to a massive labor shortage of 8 million or more in the U.S. by 2010.

A worker today is “older” at age 40 and over. Older workers tend to face many perceptions from those younger. Job loss presents a challenge for older workers as the appearance is they are too old or too near retirement to begin a job. The perception is often that older workers increase the costs of employee benefits and that they will have fewer working years. Additionally there is the belief older employees will have higher rates of absentee- ism. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act provides legislation for the protection of the older worker.

As people with disabilities face difficulties in seeking and obtaining employment, legisla- tion has resulted in: • Rehabilitation Act of 1973 • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Self Test

183

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1) Which term best defines the view we have as individuals that our ways of do- ing things are better than those in other cultures?

A) Domestic view B) International law C) Ethnocentric view D) National view

2) Billy’s company is requesting he take a position in their Denmark office. Which of the following defines Billy’s new role as an expatriate?

A) Someone who lives and works in a country other than their native country. B) A person who is just about to begin work in their native country. C) Someone who lives and works in their native country. D) A person who has just returned from working in a country other than their na- tive country.

3) Which description best defines the term repatriation?

A) A person who has just returned from working in a country other than their na- tive country. B) Someone who lives and works in their native country. C) A person who is just about to begin work in their native country. D) Someone who lives and works in a country other than their native country.

4) Mark is attempting to make sure female employees in his workplace are paid as much as male employees when performing tasks in other occupations re- quiring comparable, but not necessarily identical skills, training, responsibili- ties, hazards, and effort. This process is known as ________.

A) sanctions B) comparable worth C) xenophobia D) affirmative action

5) Ernest was looking forward to representing his company in China. Once he had arrived, however, he felt differently. For one, the Chinese were insulted when he wanted them to sign a contract; they thought it meant he didn’t trust them. It was much more crowded than he thought it would be, transportation within the cities was much more difficult than he was used to, and the avail ability of the foods he enjoyed was very limited. What is Ernest experiencing?

A) Xenophobia B) Codetermination C) Culture shock D) Provincial attitude

Self Test

184

Human Relations

6) Nellie appears to be suffering from confusion that is impacting her ability to accept cultural differences amongst her coworkers. This confusion can best be described as ________.

A) culture shock B) culture naiveté C) culture beliefs D) culture symptoms

7) Coercive measures taken against a nation violating international law are called ________.

A) sanctions B) embargoes C) bribes D) quotas

8) The belief in the superiority of your culture over any other is called ________.

A) expatriates B) centroethics C) ethnography D) ethnocentrism

9) An unfair treatment of others due to their class level in society is known as ________.

A) repatriation B) prejudice C) discrimination D) xenophobia

10) At what age is an individual considered old as defined by the Age Discrimina tion in Employment Act?

A) 65 B) 40 C) 50 D) 39

Answer Keys

185

Human Relations

Key Term Definitions

Customs: practices followed by people of a group or region.

Culture Shock: a state of confusion and anxiety that can affect individuals when they are first exposed to an unfamiliar culture.

Expatriates: people who live and work in a country other than their native country.

Ethnocentrism: belief in the superiority of one’ own ethnic group.

Affirmative Action: a program designed to create greater equity in employment.

Mommy Track: a career track for women who want to combine career and children, typi- cally involving fewer promotions and raises.

Glass Ceiling: a level to which mommy trackers are allowed to advance in which they can see the upper levels that they will never be permitted to reach.

Answer Keys

186

Human Relations

Answers to Self Test

1)C 2)A 3)A 4)B 5)C 6)A 7)A 8)D 9)C 10)B

Notes

187

Human Relations

Unit 4 Examination Instructions

188

The Unit Examination

The Unit Examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit Four Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each Unit and follow the suggestions in the “Mastering the Course Content” section of the course Syllabus.

This Unit Examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writing standards and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the Syllabus for this course.

Human Relations

Unit 4 Examination

189

Human Relations

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Jerry is not happy with a change his firm has recently implemented. Which one resistance to change method could he use that might actually have a chance of reversing the change?

A) Sabotage B) Regression C) Resignation D) Decreased productivity

2) How does regression work as a method of resistance to change?

A) Workers pretend to forget their skills and perform them at the level of a new, untrained worker. B) Workers quit their jobs hoping the change will be reversed and they get re- hired. C) Workers deliberately break things. D) Workers go back to working at a previous job.

3) Discarding old ideas and habits in order to learn new ones involves which phase of the change process?

A) Unfreezing B) Freezing C) Refreezing D) Thawing

4) Which type of change methodology would involve changing for a limited time and then evaluating effectiveness of the change?

A) Trial period B) Experimentation C) New-person method D) Participation

5) In change management, what is acceptance?

A) Taking part in the decision-making process that leads to a change. B) Receiving change and regarding it as fact. C) Becoming thoroughly familiar with a change. D) Using or implementing change.

Unit 4 Examination

190

Human Relations

6) As the deals at Generon became more and more complex, Tamara, Generon’s VP of Sales became more and more lost. The complex deals seemed to be exposing Generon to greater risks, but Tamara figured if they were really that bad, the other parties involved in the deals would say something. Less than a year later, Generon collapsed and the deals Tamara oversaw are being blamed. What need did Tamara fail to pay attention to?

A) Self-actualization B) Equilibrium C) Self-esteem D) Anticipation

7) Which of the following is the first key step when implementing a large-scale change?

A) Determine necessity B) Communicate the vision C) Clear the path D) Follow through

8) Traditional managers issuing direct orders when implementing a change are using which method to accomplish their planned change?

A) Manipulation B) Training C) Directives D) Participation

9) Ted was excited to begin his new job as Assistant Vice President of Sales—- that is, until his first day on the job!! Turns out his employer has told him he is now responsible for telling the employees about changes in the company’s benefit programs. Which method for accomplishing change is his employer using?

A) Training B) New person C) Participation D) Directives

10) Attributes such as confidence, dominance, and creating a vision can be found in the ________.

A) task leader B) reactive leader C) charismatic leader D) situational leader

Unit 4 Examination

191

Human Relations

11) The tools and techniques which are unique to a specialized situation a leader possesses can be called ________.

A) networking skills B) conceptual skills C) human relations skills D) technical skills

12) Claire is obligated to perform her assigned work and to make certain that oth- ers she may delegate work to also perform their tasks in a prescribed way. This obligation is known as ________.

A) accountability B) responsibility C) authority D) power

13) Which of the following statements best defines the concept of behavioral leadership?

A) Applying positive techniques in leadership. B) Utilizing punishment to accomplish organizational objectives. C) Utilizing fear and intimidation to influence employees. D) Authoritarian leadership where others are simply told how to follow.

14) Dr. Marvin is the head of a group of emergency room physicians. He reports to Dr. Diehl. Dr. Diehl has told Dr. Marvin, “Go ahead and rely on your train- ing, ethics, and ideas to point the way for you and trust your own judgment when making any decisions.” What style of leadership is Dr. Diehl telling Dr. Marvin he should expect from his superior when it comes to help with making decisions, etc.?

A) Charismatic B) Traditional C) Autocratic D) Free-reign

15) Leaders who believe workers are lazy, dislike work, and avoid it at all costs have a ________ attitude.

A) Theory Z B) Theory X C) Theory Y D) Derived Theory X

Unit 4 Examination

192

Human Relations

16) Employees who abuse alcohol or drugs are often called ________.

A) habit personnel B) substance abusers C) problem indicators D) non-exempt employees

17) Which of the following refers to the stress stage that reveals itself as a slight change from “normal” behavior?

A) Yield point B) Rupture point C) Elastic limit D) Flash point

18) Which of the following refers to the warning stage indicating an individual is nearing their stress threshold?

A) Flash point B) Rupture point C) Elastic limit D) Yield point

19) In psychological or stress terms, what is conversion?

A) Unintentionally forgetting something as a means of avoiding it B) Enlarging problems out of all realistic proportions C) Expressing frustration in bodily symptoms of pain or malfunction D) Redirecting pent-up feelings towards others

20) Daryl’s job is to discipline inmates at a correctional facility. Lately, Daryl has been having stomach problems and trouble sleeping. What is his distress most likely caused by?

A) Quantitative demand distress B) Work role distress C) Chronic stress D) Work pace control

Unit 4 Examination

193

Human Relations

21) What does the term multicultural mean?

A) Having the belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group. B) Having a limited, narrow, or self-centered perspective. C) Relating to several cultures simultaneously. D) Having an unreasonable fear of those who are different from you.

22) What is it Affirmative Action programs are intended to do?

A) Equalize pay between men and women. B) Create greater equity in employment. C) Ensure reasonable accommodations are made for disabled workers. D) Equalize working conditions for men and women.

23) Mark is attempting to make sure female employees in his workplace are paid as much as male employees when performing tasks in other occupations re- quiring comparable, but not necessarily identical skills, training, responsibili- ties, hazards, and effort. This process is known as ________.

A) xenophobia B) affirmative action C) sanctions D) comparable worth

24) Andi has been up for promotion four times and has been passed up every time. It is well known that her family and three children are important to her. She gives a full measure of effort in her current job, but upper management feels she would not be willing to give the 110 percent they think would be required if she was promoted. What term describes Andi’s situation?

A) xenophobia B) the mommy track C) affirmative action D) legal discrimination

25) Ismael is from India and is the new Data Center Manager. Having heard what country Ismael is from, Michael has already decided Ismael is not qualified for the job but was given the job due to his nationality. Which of the follow- ing terms best defines Michael’s view?

A) Prejudice B) Expatriation C) Diversity D) Multiculturalism

Unit 4 Examination

194

Human Relations

Written Assignment for Unit Four

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. What are some of the principal benefits derived from the application of the management-by-objectives process? How does the RIO process relate to MBO?

2. Explain the significance of the terms yield point, elastic limit, and rupture point as they relate to stress.

3. What is meant by the “stigma of alcohol or drug programs”? How might such stigmas be overcome?

You Can Do It

195

Human Relations

Congratulations! You have completed Unit 4. Now let’s sharpen our pencils for the Final Exam.

We are confident you will do well.

Final Examination Instructions

196

About the Final Examination

After you have successfully completed all of the Unit Examinations and Written Assignments, it will be time for you to take the Final Examination.

The Final Examination will be provided by Student Services only after you have completed all four Unit Examinations and submitted all four Writing Assignments.

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final Examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A Final Exam Scheduling Form is located on the last page of this Study Guide. Please fill out all required fields and mail it to the University.

If you would like to put in a Final Exam request online, log in to your student account at www.calcoast-online.com and choose the Testing link, then select Final Exam Scheduling.

Final Exams will only be sent if you have completed all four Unit Examinations and submitted all four Writing Assignments.

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the University. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on the Testing tab and then choose either “Proctored Final” or “Non Proctored Final.” If your final was sent to your proctor, then he or she will have to enter a password that was issued to them on the Proctor Instruction Sheet for the course.

Online final exam submissions must be completed in one session; you can not save answers and go back to your exam later. We recommend that you complete your final exam on paper first, then transfer the answers to your online answer sheet.

Human Relations

Final Exam Scheduling Form

The University requires a certain number of Final Examinations to be completed under the supervision of a Proctor. At the time you enrolled or reinstated into your program, you were given the total number of proctored Final Examinations required for your degree program. If this Final Examination is to be proctored, please provide information on your designated Proctor. Otherwise, please complete Student and Course Information only and submit this form with your Essay Examination.

Date _____________________________ Student I.D. ______________________________________________

Student Name ________________________________________________________________________________

Student Address ______________________________________________________________________________

City __________________________________________________ State _________________________________

Zip Code ________________ Country ____________________________________________________________

Student E-Mail Address ________________________________________________________________________

Daytime Telephone _____________________________ Evening Telephone _____________________________

Course Information:

Course __________________ Course Name _______________________________________________________

Textbook Title _________________________________________________________________________________

Textbook Edition ________________________

Please send the Final Examination to:

Proctor’s Name _______________________________________________________________________________

Proctor’s Relationship to Student ________________________________________________________________

Proctor’s Street Address: _______________________________________________________________________

City ______________________________ State _________________ Zip Code __________________________

Country __________________________________ Proctor’s E-Mail Address: ___________________________

Daytime Telephone _________________________ Evening Telephone _________________________________

Student’s Signature ________________________________________________________________________

Get a 5 % discount on an order above $ 20
Use the following coupon code :
topwritersleague