adh compensates for blood that contains

adh compensates for blood that contains

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4.Explain how ADH compensates for blood that contains too many solutesOsmorecptors are released in the hypothalamus that secretes ADH. This causes a reaction because there is more than enough solute and there is less water. The posterior pituitary then releases ADH through the axons. With an increase in ADH, it helps to reabsorb more of the water with the response of the collecting duct. When ADH is release, it helps to reabsorb more water and to help with the filtering until solute is back a normal state5.Explain rennin-angiotension mechanism
When the blood pressure drops for any reason, special cells in the kidney detect the change and release renin into the blood stream. Renin by itself does not really affect the blood pressure. Instead, it floats around and converts inactive forms of angiotensin into angiotensin I. These inactive forms of angiotensin, which are produced by the liver, are not able to alter the blood pressure until renin changes them into angiotensin I.Angiotensin I is able to alter the blood pressure to some degree, but it isn’t strong enough to cause large changes. Instead, most angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II, a much more powerful hormone that does cause large changes in blood pressure. This second conversion happens mainly in the lungs via the action ofanother molecule called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).(This conversion is shut down by drugs called ACE Inhibitors, an important type of high blood pressure medication.)Angiotensin II is a strong hormone and can act directly on blood vesselsto cause blood pressure increases. It also has another even more important function – stimulating the release of aldosterone.Aldosterone is a very powerful vasoconstrictorthat causes large increases in blood pressure but is more important because it can actually change the baseline filtering activity of the kidneys. Aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain both salt and water, which – over time – increases the amount of water in the body. This increase, in turn, raises blood pressure.Angiotensin I, angiotensin II, and aldosterone do not live forever in the blood. Instead, they exist for a period of time and are then broken down into other molecules. The renin-angiotensin system, as a whole, responds to both short-term and long-term variations in blood pressure. It is activated by sudden drops in blood pressure – such as those that occur after blood loss – but is also stimulated by smaller, less dramatic blood pressure fluctuations.As a long-term regulator of blood pressure, the renin-angiotensin system has a
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